Terms in this set (23)
the top layer of the earth, made up of rock and soil
the middle layer of the earth between the crust and the core, made up of mostly solid rock and some partly melted rock.
made of hot liquid, rich in iron and nickel, believed to cause the Earth's magnetic field.
solid iron and nickel, found in the center of the Earth.
a theory stating that the earth's surface is broken into plates that move.
a large section of the earth's surface made of the crust and the rigid top part of the mantle.
rock formed when sediments are pressed or cemented together. Ex: Shale, coal, limestone, and sandstone.
rock formed from melted rock from deep within the earth. Ex: granite, obsidian, and pumice.
rock formed when igneous or sedimentary rock is changed by heat or pressure. Ex: slate, gneiss, marble.
a natural, nonliving solid with a definite chemical structure.
remains of plants and animals that have been preserved in rock.
the process that breaks down and changes rocks.
the breaking down of rocks into smaller pieces. Do not change what they are made of.
changes the substances that make up rock. Ex: iron in rock changes to iron oxide, or plants growing on rocks release acids that break down the rocks.
the moving of weathered rock and soil by wind, water, and ice.
the dropping of materials moved by erosion.
water that runs off land.
soil, sand, and rocks carried by wind and water.
a large, slow-moving mass of ice.
plates that move apart.
plates that push together. Sometimes one plate starts to go on top of another plate. Can form mountains and trenches.
plates slide and grind past each other. Usually causes earthquakes.
what causes the plates inside the earth to move