72 terms

Woolfolk Ed. Psych

Basic Assumptions of Learning Sciences
-Experts have deep conceptual knowledge
-Learning comes from the Learner
-Schools must create effective learning environments
-Prior knowledge is key
-Reflection is necessary to develop knowledge
Cognitive and Social Constructivism
-Piaget, Vygotsky
-Learners are active in constructing their own knowledge
-Social interactions are important in the knowledge construction
-1896 Swizterland
-Individual meaning making
-Influenced by Darwin
-Did case studies of his children to watch development
-Kids are little scientists, they experiment in order to figure out their environment
-Motivated by equilibrium, disequilibrium comes from experience and is a learning opportunity
Piagetian Theory
-Schemes, Adaptation and assimilation and accommodation
-Stage theory
-Social Constructivism
-Russian Teacher in 1900's, innovative
-Learning is bound by culture, socio-historical context important to learners
-Cultural tools are important for cognitive development
-Interactions with others through language and communication
-ZPD and scaffolding
Being able to reason, act, and participate using cultural tools
Constructivist Student Centered Teaching
-Embed learning in realistic and relevant environments.
-Provide for responsibility
-Support multiple perspectives
-Nurture self awareness
-Encourage ownership of learning
Bloom's Taxonomy
classified students in an ed. psych research lab in the late 20th century, hierarchy that is useful for similarities and differences and ease the ability to name something, cognitive taxonomy not his other ones
Recall/Knowledge Level
Lowest level on Bloom's Taxonomy, memorization, repeatable
Comprehension Level
Second lowest level of Bloom's taxonomy, some layer of meaning, reading an article and summarizing
Application Level
3rd level of Bloom's taxonomy, can you use it in real life
Analysis Level
4th level of Bloom's Taxonomy, understand the parts, compare and contrast, dissect and put back together
Evaluation Level
Second highest level of Bloom's Taxonomy, statements of judgement, supported by other knowledge, not just an opinion
Synthesis Level
Highest level of Bloom's taxonomy, ability to create something new out of knowledge, original
Change (positive or negative) over time due to environment or experience and biology or maturation)
Smallest particle of thinking, building block for understanding the world, develops over time.
A technique to get back to equilibrium, options are assimilation and accommodation
Fitting new knowledge into old schemes
Creating new schemes.
Piagetian Stage Theory
Children develop in stages, must complete one stage before moving on,
-Helpful in identifying developmental delays
Ages 0-2, use sense and ability to move to discover the world, manipulation of objects, the use of the mouth to explore the world, and repetition are widely used.
Ages2-7, language increases, able to manipulate ideas symbolically, dominated by perceptions
Concrete Operational
Ages 7-11, able to put things in order, predict, gain the theory of conservation
Formal Operational
Ages 11 and up, able to problem solve, full understanding of the physical world, abstract knowledge, can hypothesize.
Criticisms of Piaget
-Ages do not match perfectly
-More innate understanding in children than they were given credit
-Some skills are more learnable than bound to maturation
-Too general, did not focus on individuals
Zone of Proximal Development
The tasks and skills one can do with the help of a more advanced peer and thus learn but would not be able to do alone
Type of support for learning, modeling, questions, adapting instruction, prompts and cues
-Start with easier things and gradually make them more difficult
Development of the Social Self
-Age 2-little interaction, parallel play
-Preschool-peer relationships, play development
-Elementary- increased peer importance, comparisons, friendships, rankings
-Adolescence- friend ships are central, romantic relationships, large peer group
A theory of the development of identity, Stages of identity formation, each stage has a conflict that one must overcome, two opposite paths to choose at each stage
James Marcia
A theory of the development of identity, 4 states of identity formation that do not have a set order, diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium, and achievement
Identity Diffusion
Fail to make clear choices, confusion, searching, experimenting with identities
Identity Foreclosure
Adopted from family or peers, buying into an identity without making your own decisions, ready made positions
Identity Moratorium
Not even going to think about identity or make a decision about it, not trying
Identity Achievement
Commitment to a direction, decided on an identity
Jean Phinney
Theory of Ethnic identity formation 3 different stages, unexamined, exploration, and achievement
Cognitive appraisal of self, inventory of your own strengths and weaknesses, general or more specific, some correlation with academic achievement especially as one gets more specific.
The Affective reaction to a self concept, emotional, changes depending on what matters in what context
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Reasoning
3 levels to explain why people in the 1960's had different views of the issues, prevconventional ethics, conventional Ethics, Post conventional Ethics
Preconventional Ethics
-Punishment/Obedience: make moral decisions to avoid getting in trouble
-Market Exchange: Obeying rules in order to benefit as an individual
Conventional Ethics
-Interpersonal Harmony: ethical decisions made based on concern for the opinion of others
-Law and Order: rules and laws are inflexible and are obeyed for their own sake
Postconventional Ethics
-Social Contract: rules and laws represent agreement among people about a behavior that benefits society
-Universal Principles: ethics are determined by abstract and general principles that transcend societal rules (sometimes considered unattainable)
She criticized Kohlberg for male dominance, focused on female emphasis on nurturing and the ethic of care
Character Education
The idea that moral character can be taught, trained into students and modeled and improved, set of values determined to be moral code are taught
-Cons: done for rewards instead of rightness, not all cultures have same values
-Pros: changes behavior, assimilates cross culturally, mimics how society works
Values Clarification
70's approach, Allows students to think about what is right and wrong and what their stance on issues is
Cognitive Approach Moral Development
Kohlberg, cause disequilibrium through stories and current events to allow adaptation and mobility to higher levels of thinking
Spearman's G
Number for general intelligence defined as problem solving ability or capacity to acquire knowledge, does not take into account nuances
Multiple Intelligences
Created by Gardner in the 80's, he broke apart intelligence into 8 separate aspects, more may be on the way, Logical, Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, Kinesthetic, Musical, Spatial, Linguistic, and Naturalist, Spiritual may be new one, criticized for just being personality, could be both or the same thing???
Sternberg's Triarchic theory
Split intelligence into analytic, creative and Practical
Creator of the IQ test to diagnose children with possible developmental issues, mean 100 with a standard deviation of 15
-Used for incorrect purposes like keeping "feeble minded" out of the US even though test was in English and immigrants were scared, put feeble minded on front lines in WWII
Flynn Effect
Every Generation has a higher IQ than the last, poses questions on measuring issues and the nature/nurture effects on intelligence
Students with Exceptionality
A Student on either thehigh and low end of IQ for whom differences in their capability of learning are extreme enough that they warrant a change in instruction
Special Education
A program for people with cognitive delays but more commonly for people with learning disabilities with IQ's anywhere on the spectrum,
-Must have parental involvement and correct testing
-Placed in the least restrictive environment
-IEP to come up with helpful learning strategies for the student
Achievement Gap
-Based on Race and ethnicity
-Based on Socioeconomic status
-No Gender Gap
-Shows up in tests scores, tracking, drop out rates, college rate, grades, etc.
Socioeconomic Reasons for the Gap
-Lower SES Parents talk to their children less, may be from Higher stress, less time
-Differences in parenting styles and teaching styles, Low SES homes more punitive and classes more authoritative
-Culture mismatch in languages, dialects, unwritten social rules
Cultural Influences on Learning
All learning is sociocultural, assumption of value
Stereotype Threat
When an identity becomes salient and thus one finds proof of the stereotype, tries to keep it at bay which may adversely effect school performance
Ways to Combat Stereotype Threat
To assist students, Reduce salience of stereotype, reduce test stress, role models that challenge stereotypes
Resistance Culture
Those who do not want to succeed in the traditional way, oppositional, an identity with a group that opposes what you see as dominant culture and its facets
Ways to Lessen the Gap
-Multiculturalism which assists in changing views and pedagogy,
-College prep available
-Quality early childhood care
-Parental Education
-Reduce Class size
-High teacher expectations and quality
Watson is Founder, environment can change and anyone can have opportunity, no predestination, individual differences not important
-Wanted to make psychology more testable and scientific
-The mind is not observable so not study-able
-Helped pave the way Behaviorism and conditioning, you can shape what animals do, generalized to humans
Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning
-Skinner and his box
-Operant is voluntary behaviors, Classic is involuntary reactions
-In education can lessen test anxiety, and provide rewards for grades (not helpful)
-He disagreed with Skinner over how much of language is innate, he thought more than Skinner did.
Cognitive Psychology
-Decided that we are able to look at thought processes by the response they elicit
-Memory important
Memory model
This model is based on a information processing computer model with seeking, gaining, storing, remembering, and using information about the world.
Memory techniques
-Used to move things into long term memory and make them more retrievable
-Chunking- limited capacity in short term memory
Connectionism and Schema Theory
-A complex web of ideas that are connected.
-Learning happens when you connect ideas to this web
--Background knowledge needed to start web and have something to connect to
-Examples strengthen connections
Private Speech
Children's self talk, which guides their thinking and action. Eventually, these verbalization are internalized as silent inner speech.
Cultural Tools
The real tools and symbol systems that allow people in a society to communicate, think, solve problems, and create knowledge.
Ability Grouping
A classroom technique where people of the same skill level are put together in small groups to teach each other and learn at the same level
Pros: easier for the teacher to help individuals, classify children's' levels, teach each other, learn at your level
Cons: classifies children and they know it which can hinder the lower level groups self esteem and learning
Learned Helplessness
After failing many times and seeing no way out, one stops trying, lack of control brings an expectation of failure
Culturally Relevant Pedagogy
Excellent teaching for students of color that includes academic success, developing/maintaining cultural competence, and developing a critical consciousness to challenge the status quo.