POLS 206 Exam 2
Texas A&M University Lipsmeyer Spring 2015
Terms in this set (72)
2 ways our gov. history is different from other European countries
1. Never had feudalism
2. No true history of Marxism (socialism)
-wrote "The Liberal Tradition"
-Liberalism is what holds us together
Why were the founders suspicious of pubic opinion?
they didn't think it would lead a very stable system
Public opinion today is similar to what Paine wanted but how is it different?
his radical ideas were not incorporated in the constitution
Where do our opinions come from?
How is public opinion measured?
What was a key way for politicians to get
What is political socialization?
influencing people's opinions through social means (parents, peers)
Polling: random sample
every person in your big population has the same chance of begin chosen for your sample
Polling: stratified sample
randomly samples within groups
Name the 5 political concerns to polling
2. Pushes out other forms of
3. Can't measure
4. Polls have become the
5. Can be used as
some people don't have an opinion on an issue so they just create one right off the bat
asking questions that get people to think about things (like rumors)
Who warned the public about political parties in his farewell address?
What were the first two parties?
Federalists(Northern Merchants) vs. Democratic Republicans (Southern Planters)
parties created within same political boundaries (Congress) that share interests
parties formed outside of political boundaries
when you give out basic political jobs in large numbers to reward people for their loyalty
wanted fix the corruption in the political system, take power out of the hands of political parties
Civil Service Reform
breaks the link between the jobs and partisanship (spoils system)
Political parties are not ideological, but _____.
Single member districts
-used for most of our elections
-1 person elected from each district
Party Bell Curve (Downs Model)
largest percentage of voters are in the middle (independents) and the more extreme you get to the tails the fewer people there are ; why we have only 2 big parties
3 things parties are primarily concerned with...
3. leadership in gov. (parties control this)
3 Aspects in party structure
Where is the power in the party organization?
-which issues are important?
How do national parties raise money during presidential elections?
throw a huge-a** party and turn up
What is a party platform?
a book that lays out a party's stance on issues
What was media like during the Founding Fathers?
-vicious to other parties
Alien and Sedition Acts
couldn't pass anything malicious, scandalous, or false info about the gov. , most of it was repealed by 1802 (thank god or else gossip girl wouldn't exist! jk that doesnt make sense)
what are the 2 different kinds of media?
How are print media and broadcast media regulated differently?
-print media has very few to no regulations while broadcast media is heavily regulated by the FCC
NY times v US (1971)
press got the pentagon papers about the gov. but the gov. didn't want them to be published , SC says the gov. can't stop them because there is no
NY Times v Sullivan 1964 (seriously though... how many times did the NY Times go to court... geez)
sullivan attempting to sue NY Time AFTER they published some nasty sh*t on him, SC says you have to prove that they published it with reckless intent
4 Ways FCC regulates broadcast media
2.equal time rule
3. right of rebuttal
4. fairness doctrine (doesn't apply to today)
right of rebuttal
if you were personally attacked then they are required you to offer your own comments
if airing something controversial, you have to provide time for the opposing views
What happened when the FCC dropped the fairness doctrine?
-news could become bias
-programs can give you only one side on an issue
-press can alter your perceptions
press decides what is important
how media helps us interpret events
the sense that journalists NEED a story to sell
What did Paine think about elections?
-thinks elections are important because they help us choose reps that are like us (representative link-holds reps accountable)
How did Madison think about elections?
-doesnt want reps to act like us , thinks that the head (reps) should rule the heart (us)
How did Hamilton think about elections?
-important to have reps that we have chosen but thinks there is a natural aristocracy
3 Ways the gov. regulates voting
2. voter registration
3. election rules
Voting rights act
opens right to vote to all race , voting age originally 21, 26th amendment changed it to 18
What state does not have voter registration?
proof of residency
prevents people from voting more than once and only in that district
register prior to election
intended to keep the process from being corrupt, way to keep some people from voting
2 ways ballots are put together
1.office block ballot
2.party column ballot
office block ballot
organize ballots based on different offices
promotes ticket splitting
used by most states
party column ballot
promote a party vote, harder to split tickets
only need 1 more vote than a competitor to win a seat
(50% of the votes plus 1) to win a seat
party receives a percent of the total votes, they get that percent of seats
recreate the districts to keep them similar in size (population wise)
Miller v Johnson
race could not be the predominant factor in drawing districts
4 Determinates of Voter Choice (PICR)
3 reasons people don't vote
1.rational choice explanation
Rational Choice Explanation (turnout problem)
-economic based (costs and benefits)
-opportunity costs (time)
with-drawl argument (turnout problem)
psychology based "my vote won't matter"
comparativist explanation (turnout problem)
institutional based (our system doesn't offer a lot of choices)
The election of FDR was an example of what and why?
-critical realigning election
-everyone wanted the New Deal
Critical realigning elections
seismic shift under the party label , we may have had the same 2 parties by name for a long time, but they change their forms
disruption of party supporters
Why do groups mobilize and form?
-economic self interest
-common interest that will benefit them
What turns a potential group into an actual group?
Mancur Olsen "The Logic of Collective Action"
Theory of Collective Action
How did Madison view interest groups?
only concerned about majority factions, if you had a large enough republic though, they would cancel each other out
How did Pluralists view interest groups?
believed factions were good, they encourage participation and competition is good for the political process
2 Critiques of Interest groups
2. Hyperpluralism critique
-one interest group has more influence than otter groups , they dont help the political process
3 components of the Iron Triangle
2. Bureaucratic Agency
3. Interest group
opposite of populous critique, too many flipping interest groups that nothing gets done (
too much representation