Chapter 10 APHuG Everything Drew H
Terms in this set (47)
Where/when did agriculture originate?
The origin of agriculture is unknown because it has existed long before history was recorded. Over thousands of years, agriculture was discovered and evolved through accidental and purposeful experiments.
The deliberate modification of Earth's surface through the growing of plants and producing animals for sustenance or economic gain.
Where is modern day (contemporary) hunting and gathering located?
It is located in isolated groups who live on the periphery of world settlement.
Explain Hunting and Gathering
Before agriculture existed, humans got food through _____ __ _____ in small groups. The men would hunt animals while the women gathered nuts, roots, and berries. They migrated based on the movement of game and seasonal plant growth.
This was the earliest type of plant cultivation. This is cutting off parts of plants and growing new plants from those parts. Vegetative planting probably originated in Southeast Asia and Africa.
This is just planting the seed. It is the most commonly used method today. Seed agriculture probably originated in West India, North China, and Ethiopia.
It diffused from Western India to Southwest Asia. Seed agriculture diffused from Southwest Asia through Europe and North Africa. The earliest countries were Greece, Crete, and Cyprus. South Mexico and North Peru were two independent seed agriculture hearths.
The production of food by preparing land to grow crops on.
This is the production of food to feed (sustain) the farmer and his family.
Commercial Agriculture (Agribusiness)
This is the production of food to sell and gain profit off of.
A type of agriculture where farmers will clear land through slashing the vegetation and then burning what is leftover. The farmers will then grow crops on the cleared land until the nutrients in the soil are gone. And then wait until the soil is recovered so they can grow more crops. This can take many years. Its use or land devoted to this type of agriculture is shrinking. Many people see it as only a preliminary step to economic development.
The herding of domesticated animals for the purpose of subsistence agriculture. It is not considered to be that advanced and its use is shrinking.
A form of subsistence agriculture where the farmer must work more intensively. It is more intensive and difficult because of the small amount of land and you are relying on this to sustain yourself and possibly your family too.
Intensive Subsistence: Wet Rice Dominant
An area where Intensive Subsistence is used that will plant rice on dry land and then move the young rice to a flooded field to better the growth. It is completely dependent on the rainfall.
Intensive Subsistence: Wet Rice Not Dominant
An area where Intensive Subsistence is used that does not use wet rice techniques. No crops can be harvested in the winter.
A type of agriculture where there is one large farm that only grows one or two types of crops. This could possibly be supporting the effects stated in the dependency theory.
Mixed Crops & Livestock
A form of agriculture where people will grow crops to support their livestock and use the waste of their livestock as fertilizer for their crops to create a form of synergy. They only get a large income from their crops during the harvest season.
The type of agriculture in which you use livestock to get milk that can be consumed or processed into dairy products. This currently has increasing costs and shrinking revenues. It is labor intensive. They need to purchase food for the cows in the winter. The products are extremely perishable.
Agriculture where they grow grain for human consumption. LDC's struggle in the grain market.
The grazing of livestock over land for commercial purposes. This caused "Range Wars" in the (West) USA and it can involve a large amount of transportation.
An agricultural system practiced in the Mediterranean-style climates of Western Europe, California, and portions of Chile and Australia, in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes and avocados. There are hot and dry summers there.
Gardening & Fruit Culture
The growing of fruits and vegetables. They hire Mexican (usually illegal) immigrants for low pay.
The farming of flowers, fruits, and vegetables.
When you harvest twice a year from the same field.
What two economic factors influence the choice of crops/livestock by commercial farmers?
Their access to markets and overproduction.
A farmer in Northern Germany. He wrote a book called "The Isolated State" He also created the ___ ______ model in 1826 which stated that a commercial farmer decides what crops and animals to used based on the market location.
Von Thünen Model
A model that explains the location of agricultural activities in a commercial, profit-making economy. A process of spatial competition allocates various farming activities into rings around a central market city, with profit-earning capability the determining force in how far a crop locates from the market. Rings from into out - city, horticulture and dairying, forestry, crop rotation, crop and pasture alternate use on enclosed fields, then grazing.
What did Von Thünen not include in his model?
The geography of the site. Human factors. It also did not address government policies or social customs that could affect this.
How has supply and demand of agricultural products recently changed for LDC's and MDC's?
The food supply in LDC's has gone up while the demand has remained constant. The food demand in MDC's has also remained constant due to a shrinking population growth.
What has the US Government done to deal with excess agriculture capacity(overproduction)?
They dissuade farmers from growing crops that are already in excess.
They pay the farmers when commodity prices are low.
They buy excess and either sells or donates it to foreign states.
These are government issued coupons that recipients can exchange for food.
This states that because land is left to fallow for a shorter period of time which means that there is more land devoted to agriculture at any given time. Also, when population growth occurs, farmers are more likely to change their farming methods.
What is the problem that is faced by LDC's as they try to increase the amount of export crops to sell to MDC's?
There isn't any land left to grow crops to feed themselves because they are exporting all of their crops.
How do they feed people in LDC's who have moved away form subsistence farming towards commercial agriculture?
They use the money that hey have made through exporting crops.
Where is Coca Leaf grown and exported from?
_ is grown and exported from Northwest South America.
Where is Marijuana grown and exported from?
_ is grown and exported from Mexico.
Where is Opium grown and exported from?
_ is grown and exported from Asia.
What are four strategies to increase food supply?
To expand current land area used for agriculture.
To increase agricultural productivity of land used for agriculture.
To identify new food sources.
To increase exports from other countries.
Identify three reasons why land is currently being removed from agricultural use.
Desertification, Urbanization, and Excessive Water.
A shift in agricultural practices in the twentieth century. Two main aspects of this were new and better seeds and a larger use of fertilizers. Because of this, agricultural productivity at a global scale has increased faster than population growth.
List and describe one problem with each of the strategies for increasing the world's food supply by identifying new food sources.
Ocean Cultivation - Over-fishing.
High Protein Cereal - Limited access to it in LDC's.
Improve the Yummyness of Rarely Eaten Foods - It still tastes bad, it can also violate beliefs or customs.
Describe Africa's food supply crisis.
Sub-Saharan Africa is failing to keep their food production above their population growth. This issue is seeming to continue to worsen. They currently have a lower production than they did in the 1960's. They are barely able to feed half of the population.
A system of cultivation in which soil nutrients are restored by allowing the forest to regrow. The land is used for 2 years and left to fallow for twenty or more years. (forest grows back)
An agricultural system where land is used for eight years and left to fallow for ten more years. (bushes grow back)
An agricultural system where crops are cleared and utilized for two years and left fallow for two years to allow grasses to grow back.
When fields are used every year and left fallow for a few months by planting legumes and roots.
When land is used for agriculture many times throughout the year and never left to fallow.
A type of agriculture that enhances or keeps the land used healthy. It has lower costs but also lower revenues.
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