1. Name which region that defied the common pattern of growing Western domination in the 19th century.
Russia and Japan.
2. Describe the development of Russia and Japan to1900.
They both developed due to a heightened threat of Western inference; Both accepted Western advisors and other intrusions; Both sustained significant industrialization; Both made changes to strengthen their social and political systems.
3. Name a significant difference between Russia and Japan.
Japan withdrew from east Asia while Russia continued expanding influence in Europe and Asia.
4. Name a significant similarity between Russia and Japan during the period of industrialization prior to 1914.
Had prior experience with the threat of invaders; Japan → China; Russia → Byzantium and the West.
5. Describe the root of Russia's fear about Westernization in the first decades of the 19th century.
May lead to same fate as France with the French Revolution.
6. Name the nations that were linked together in the Holy Alliance that grouped conservative monarchies together in defense of religion and the status quo in 1815.
They were Russia, Prussia, and Austria.
8. Describe what accounts for Russia's lack of significant revolution in 1830 and 1848.
10. Describe the Russian economy at the beginning of the 19th century.
The economy increased exports; increased serf demands; imported Western equipment.
11. Name the war in the mid-19th century that demonstrated Russia's widening gap with the West.
The Crimean War.
12. Explain what accounted for the West's victory over Russia in the Crimean War.
The industrial advantage.
15. Describe the emancipation of the serfs in Russia.
They were more generous than the liberation of slaves in the Americas; Although some aristocrats retained part of the land (most fertile), serfs got most of it (in contrast to slaves, who got freedom and nothing else); Russian emancipation was careful to preserve essential aristocratic power; tsar not interested in destroying nobility (most reliable political allies and source of most bureaucrats); Emancipation designed to retain the tight grip of the tsarist state; Serfs obtained no new political rights at a national level, still tied to villages until they could pay for the land they were given; Redemption payments: added greatly to peasants' material hardship; went to the aristocrats to help preserve this class.
16. List the considerations in the reform of serfdom.
Emancipation didn't bring change; it helped create a larger urban labor force; It didn't spur a revolution in agricultural productivity b/c most peasants continued to use traditional methods on their small plots; Did not bring contentment; peasant uprisings became more common as hopes for a brighter future seemed dashed by the limits of change; Explosive rural unrest in Russia was furthered by substantial population growth as some of the factors that had earlier swelled the West's population now spread to Russia, including increased use of the potato.
17. List the reforms introduced in Russia in the 1860s and 1870s.
New law codes cut back the traditional punishments now that serfs were legally free in the eyes of the law (though subject to important transitional restrictions); Tsar created local political councils, the zemstvoes, which had a voice in regulating roads, schools, and other regional policies, but had no influence on national policy - the tsar resolutely maintained his own authority and that of extensive bureaucracy; Army (the Crimean War had shown the need for reform). Officer corps was improved through promotion by merit and a new organization of essential services. Recruitment was extended, and many peasants learned new skills through their military service; Some strides were made in providing state-sponsored basic education, although schools spread unevenly.
18. Explain the first step toward industrialization in Russia.
Extensive railroad network in the 1870s; Trans-Siberian Railroad connected European Russia w/ the Pacific (completed by end of 1880s).
19. Name the Russian minister of finance from 1892 to 1903 responsible for much economic modernization.
He was Count Witte.
21. Explain how successful the Russian industrialization programs were by 1900.
Russia had surged to fourth rank in the world in steel production and was second to the US in the newer area of petroleum and refining.
22. Name what was present during the Russian program of industrialization.
Russia's world rank was more of its great size and population, along with its rich natural resources, than of thorough mechanization. Many Russian factories were vast - on average, the largest in the world - but they were usually not up to Western technical standards, nor were the labor force highly trained. Agriculture also remained backward, as peasants, often illiterate, had neither capital nor motives to change their ways.
23. List what were apart of the rising tide of unrest in Russia during the 2nd half of the 19th century.
The Cossacks (Peasants) and the Bolsheviks.
24. Name the general goal of the Russian intelligentsia.
Intelligentsia - A Russian term for articulate intellectuals as a class; Clamored for revolutionary change; Student groups became increasingly active as universities expanded, and many were impatient with Russia's slow development and with the visible restrictions on political activity; Wanted political freedom and deep social reform while maintaining a Russian culture different from that of the West, which they saw as hopelessly materialistic.
25. Name the Russian radicals who sought the abolition of all formal government.
They were called Anarchists.
26. Name the chief political method used by the anarchists to achieve reform.
Winning peasant support and a host of upper-class radicals fanned out to teach the peasantry the beauty of political activism. Failure led to violent methods (first large terrorist movement in the modern world).
27. Describe Russian Marxism.
Leader: Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov "Lenin"; Argued that because of the spread of international capitalism, a proletariat was developing worldwide in advance of industrialization. Therefore, Russia could have a proletarian revolution without going through a distinct middle-class phase; Insisted importance of disciplined revolutionary cells that could maintain doctrinal purity and effective action even under severe police repression.
29. List the contributions to working-class radicalism in the late 19th century in Russia.
Became far more radical than their western counterparts. They formed unions and conducted strikes (which were illegal), their radicalism stemmed partly from the absence of legal political outlets, it arose also rural unrest.
31. Name the group that the imperial government appealed to in the reforms following the revolution of 1905.
The urban workers.
32. Name the minister that was responsible for enacting reforms for the peasantry following the revolution of 1905.
He was Stolypin.
34. Name the peasants who responded to the reforms of 1905 by engaging in entrepreneurial activity including increasing production and buying up land.
They were called Kulaks.
35. List the Russian developments adopted in other East European states.
Established parliaments that were restricted, some had monarchies, abolished serfdom, industrialized, romantic tradition and other western styles.
37. Describe the Tokugawa Shogunate in the 19th century.
During 1st half, continued to combine a central bureaucracy with semi-feudal alliances between regional and the samurai, government ran repeatedly into financial problems, taxes were based on agriculture.
38. Describe the Tokugawa intellectual and cultural life.
It was developing, neo-Confucianism continued to gain among the ruling elite at the expense of Buddhism, became more secular, schools and academies were expanded, 40% of men literate and 15% of women literate.
39. Name the group in Tokugawa Japan that advocated interest in Western scientific advance.
A group of scholars who were interested in "Dutch medicine" were referred to as the Dutch Studies.
41. Name the year that the new emperor, Mutsuhito but commonly called "Meiji" or "Enlightened One," proclaimed, signaling the end of a major political crisis.
In the year 1868.
42. List the advantages of Japan over China in the competition to assume leadership and the establish industrialization in Asia.
The advantages consisted of: Japan already knew the benefits of imitation; Japan's slower government growth had allowed a stronger, more autonomous merchant tradition even as both societies became more commercial in the 17th and early 18th centuries; Japan maintained political and economic vigor into the 19th century; Feudal traditions, though declining under the Tokugawa Shogunate, also limited the heavy hand of government controls while simulating some sense of competitiveness, as in the West; Japan enjoyed increasing industrial success and had a conservative state that would yield after World War II to a more fully parliamentary form; Japan's industrial lead remains, but China's economy is stirring.
43. List the Japanese political reforms in the period of the Meiji state.
The political reforms consisted of: Feudalism was abolished, placing daimyos in 1871 with a system of nationally appointed prefects (district administrators carefully chosen from different regions; the prefect system was copied from French practice); Political power was effectively centralized, and from this base the Meiji rulers—rulers the emperor and his close advisors, drawn from loyal segments of the aristocracy—began to expand the power of the state to effect economic and social change; The Japanese government sent their samurais abroad to places such as the United States and Western Europe, to study economic and political institutions and technology; Fundamental improvements in government finance soon followed.
44. Name the primary difference between the reformed Japanese government and reformed Russian institutions by 1914.
Government control also helped check the many foreign advisors needed by early Japanese industry; here, Japan maintained a closer supervision that its Russian neighbor.
45. Name one of the major similarities between Japanese and Russian industrialization.
Scarce capital and the unfamiliarity of new technology seemed to compel state direction, as occurred in Russia at the same time.
46. Define zaibatsus.
Huge industrial combines created in Japan in the 1890's as part of the process of industrialization.
47. Describe Japanese industrialization prior to World War I.
Pre-World War I Japan was far from the West's equal. It depended on imports of Western equipment and raw materials such as coal; for industrial purposes, Japan was a resource-poor nation. Although economic growth and careful government policy allowed Japan to avoid Western domination, Japan was newly dependent on world economic conditions and was often at a disadvantage. It needed exports to pay for machine and resource imports, and these in turn took hordes of low-paid workers. Silk-production grew rapidly, the bulk of it destined for Western markets. Much of this production was based on the labor of poorly-paid women who worked at home or in sweatshops, not in mechanized factories. Some of these women were sold into service by farm families. Efforts at labor organization or other means of protest were met by vigorous repression.
48. List Western cultural characteristics adopted by large numbers of Japanese.
The cultural characteristics adopted consisted of: Western hairstyles replaced the samurai shaved head with a top knot; Western standards of hygiene spread (Ex.-Teeth-brushing, patent medicines, etc...); Western calendar and metric system were adopted; The Japanese converted to Christianity, yet they were still able to preserve their own values.
49. Name the religion that gained new adherents in industrialized Japan.
The religion was Shintoism.
50. List the signs of significant social stress in industrialized Japan.
The signs of social stress consisted of: Poor living standards and crowed cities; Many Japanese conservatives resented the passion other Japanese displayed for Western fashions; Disputes between the clashing generations occurred-(Old clung to their conservative ways and traditional standards while the young were more interested in Western styles); Political parties in Japan's parliament clashed with the Emperor's ministers over rights to determine policy; Assassinations and attempted assassinations reflected grievances, including direct action impulses in the samurai tradition; Tension in the intellectual field occurred as well-(Some scholars copied Western philosophers while other expressed pessimistic views about the loss of identity in a changing world); Japanese nationalism built on traditions of superiority, cohesion, and deference to rulers, as well as on the new tensions generated by rapid change.