17. List the reforms introduced in Russia in the 1860s and 1870s.
New law codes cut back the traditional punishments now that serfs were legally free in the eyes of the law (though subject to important transitional restrictions); Tsar created local political councils, the zemstvoes, which had a voice in regulating roads, schools, and other regional policies, but had no influence on national policy - the tsar resolutely maintained his own authority and that of extensive bureaucracy; Army (the Crimean War had shown the need for reform). Officer corps was improved through promotion by merit and a new organization of essential services. Recruitment was extended, and many peasants learned new skills through their military service; Some strides were made in providing state-sponsored basic education, although schools spread unevenly.