AP Psych - Personality

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Sigmond Freud
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Terms in this set (75)
Defense MechanismThe ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality. Freud described many, including denial, displacement, etc.DenialDefense mechanism by which people refuse to believe or even to perceive painful realities.DisplacementDefense mechanism that shifts impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person. (Ex: Punching your pillow when mad.)ProjectionDefense mechanism in which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others. (Ex: People who cheat on their partners often get paranoid of their partners cheating on them, even if there's no proof)RationalizationDefense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions. Basically, you explain your behavior or thoughts by telling yourself "It's ok because..." (Ex: When you get rejected by your crush and respond by saying, "That's ok, because I wasn't that attracted to you anyways.")Reaction FormationDefense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings. (Ex: A drug addict loudly preaches against substance abuse and for abstinence from them.)RegressionDefense mechanism in which a person faced with anxiety retreats to something comforting from when they were younger. (Ex: Someone dealing with harsh news may turn to cuddling with a stuffed animal like they use to do as a child.)RepressionDefense mechanism in which a person tries not to think about anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories. It's different from denial in that you know don't deny that it exists, but you try not to think about it. (Ex: When you forget a traumatic event or bury homework you're stressed about under a pile of other books.)SublimationDefense mechanism by which people redirect socially unacceptable impulses toward acceptable goals. (Ex: A person who feels violent joins a karate club.)Neo-FreudiansFollowers of Freud who developed their own psychodynamic theories based on the idea of the unconscious. Jung, Adler, and Horney were among this group.Alfred AdlerNeo-Freudian. He introduced the concept of "inferiority complex" and stressed the importance of birth order.Inferiority ComplexAdler's conception of a basic feeling of inadequacy (feeling that you're not being good enough or as good as) stemming from childhood experiences.Birth OrderAdler's theory that personality is affected by a person's position among their siblings. (oldest, middle, youngest, etc.) This is not a universally accepted theory.Carl JungNeo-Freudian who created the concept of "collective unconscious".Collective UnconsciousJung's theory that all people at all times share an inherited memory that contains our culture's most basic elements. These include such things as the archetypes found in many stories and ideas such as "mother" earth.ArchetypesAccording to Jung, emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning. In stories these include the hero, the sage, the jester, etc.Extroversionimpulsive, sociable, assertiveIntroversionshy, socially withdrawn, passiveKaren HorneyNeo-Freudian who criticized Freud, stated that personality is formed by current fears and impulses, not just childhood experiences and instincts. She developed the concepts of womb envy and basic anxiety.Penis EnvyAccording to Freud, the female desire to have a penis - a condition that usually results in their attraction to males.Womb EnvyHorney's theory than men want praise and accomplishments because they are unable to bear children.Moving Toward People (Affiliation and Dependence)Adjustment to basic anxiety that uses the need to be wanted, loved, and protected by other people. Horney referred to the person using this adjustment technique as the compliant type.Moving Against People (Aggression and Manipulation)Adjustment to basic anxiety that uses the tendency to exploit other people and to gain power over them. Horney referred to the person using this adjustment technique as the hostile type.Moving Away from People (Detachment and Isolation)Adjustment to basic anxiety that uses the need to be self-sufficient. Horney referred to the person using this adjustment technique as the detached type.Humanistic TheoryAn approach to psychology that emphasizes the entirety of life rather than individual components of behavior and focuses on human dignity, individual choice, and self-worth. Rogers and Maslow believed in this.Abraham MaslowHumanistic psychologist known for his "Hierarchy of Needs" and the concept of "self-actualization".The Hierarchy of NeedsMaslow's theory human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active.Carl RogersHumanistic psychologist. He came up with the idea of self-concept and unconditional positive regard.Self-ConceptAccording to Carl Rogers, all of our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"Ideal SelfWho you want to beReal SelfThe person you actually areCongruenceWhen your real self and ideal self match up. According to Rogers, this causes a person to be happy.IncongruenceWhen your real self and ideal self do not match up. According to Rogers, this causes a person to have anxiety, depression or other mental illnesses.Unconditional Positive RegardAccording to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person.Social-Cognitive TheoryBandura's theory of personality that emphasizes both cognition and learning as sources of individual differences in personality. Basically, our personalities are affected by our thoughts and the people around us.Reciprocal DeterminismBandura's idea that though our environment affects us, we also affect our environment (the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment) (Ex: When a child doesn't like going to school, he acts out in class. This makes the teachers not like having him around, which makes him not like school.)Self-EfficacyAn person's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.Julian RotterPsychologist who developed the idea of internal and external locus of controlLocus of ControlA belief about the amount of control a person has over situations in their life. This theory was developed by Julian Rotter.Internal Locus of ControlAccording to Julian Rotter, a person's belief that they control their own fate.External Locus of ControlAccording to Julian Rotter, a person's belief that forces beyond their control determine their fate.HeritabilityThe ability of a trait to be passed down from one generation to the next.Minnesota Twin StudyFamous study done by Bouchard in 1979 of twins who were adopted by different families and raised apart. He found that 88% of their traits were shared, giving evidence to the idea that a large part of our personality is genetic. (We are mostly nature, not nurture.)TemperamentOur basic emotional style (calm, anxious, outgoing, happy, etc.) that appears early in development and stays that same throughout our lives. It is mostly the result of our genetics.Trait TheoryA theory of personality that focuses on identifying, describing, and measuring individual differences based on our different characteristics (outgoing, organized, etc.)Gordon AllportPsychologist who promoted a trait theory of personality. He said there are 3 levels of traits: cardinal, central, and secondaryCardinal TraitsAccording to Allport, personality traits that direct most of the person's activities (the person's dominant traits that influence all of our behaviors)Central TraitsAccording to Allport, personality traits that form the basis of personality. (less dominant than cardinal traits)Secondary TraitsAccording to Allport, personality traits that influence behavior in relatively few situations; Traits that are more preferences/attitudesRaymond CattellPsychologist who believed in trait theory and developed the 16 personality factors.Hans and Sybil EysenckPsychology theorists who suggested that personality could be reduced to two polar dimensions introversion-extraversion and emotional instability-stability (neuroticism).Rober McCrae & Paul CostaPsychologists who introduced the five factors personality theory: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.Five Factor TheoryThe idea that personality can be described using a sliding scale of five factors (O.C.E.A.N), Openness to experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and NeuroticismOpennessOne of the five factors of personality. It is a person's willingness to try new things and be open to new experiences.ConscientiousnessOne of the five factors of personality. It is the care a person gives to organization and thoughtfulness of others; dependability.ExtroversionOne of the five factors of personality. It is how outgoing, talkative, sociable, and assertive a person is.AgreeablenessOne of the five factors of personality. It is how trusting, good-natured, cooperative, and soft-hearted one is; how much a person is willing to go along to get along.NeuroticismOne of the five factors of personality. It is how anxious, insecure, and emotional unstable a person is.Projective TestA personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli and then assesses a person's personality based on what they say about that stimuli.Rorschach Inkblot TestA projective test in which respondents' inner thoughts and feelings are believed to be revealed by analyzing their responses to a set of inkblots.Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)The most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes.Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)A projective test requiring examinees to tell a story in response to ambiguous pictures.Individualistic CultureA culture that focuses on individual achievement and autonomy. European and mainline American culture are examples.Selective Migration (Self-Segregation)When people choose to move to places where there are people who share similar beliefs, characteristics or personality traits.Collectivist CultureA culture in which personal accomplishments are less important than the group a person is a part of. Many Asian cultures are examples.