Earth's Changing Surfaces, Chapter 3 Test Review
Erosion and Deposition
Terms in this set (102)
A large mass of moving ice
A depression (hole) formed from melting ice that is buried in till
A mound, ridge, or other distinct accumulation of glacial till.
Unsorted mixtures of clay, silt, gravel, and boulders left from the glaciers.
A long period of time where parts of the Earth were covered with ice
a glacier that covers much of a continent or large island
A long, narrow glacier that forms when snow and ice build up in a mountain valley.
What is the source of the energy in ocean waves?
wind that blows across the water's surface
How does an ocean wave change when it reaches shallow water?
the wave begins to drag on the bottom which causes the wave to slow down and water to move forward with the wave
What are two ways in which waves erode land?
What are four landforms created by wave erosion along a coast?
1. sea cave
2. wave-cut cliff
3. sea arch
4. sea stack
What are four features formed by wave deposition?
4. barrier beaches
The energy that water picks up from the wind causes water particles to move up and down as the waves goes by. True or false.
The energy that water picks up from the wind causes water particles to move forward. True or false.
Waves are the major force of erosion along coasts. True or false.
How do waves shape the coast through erosion?
by breaking down rock and transporting sand and other sediment
What is a headland?
a part of the shore that sticks out into the ocean because it is made of harder rock
How does a sea cave form?
as waves erode a hollow area in the cliff
How does a sea arch form?
when waves erode a layer of softer rock that underlies a layer of harder rock
How does a sea stack result?
a pillar of rock left standing when a sea arch collapses
An area of wave-washed sediment along a coast is a(n)?
The process in which beach sediment is moved down the beach with the current is called?
What is a spit?
a beach that projects like a finger out into the water
How does a spit form?
forms as longshore drift deposits sand along the shore
Where do spits occur?
where a headland or other obstacle interrupts longshore drift, or where the coast turns abruptly
What is a sandbar?
long ridges of sand parallel to the shore
How are barrier beaches formed?
when storm waves pile up large amounts of sand above sea level forming a long, narrow island parallel to the coast
Waves shape a coast when they deposit sediment, forming coastal features such as beaches, sand bars, spits, and barrier beaches. True or false.
Energy in waves comes from wind. True or false.
Energy in waves moves across the water. True or False.
A wave approaching land slows down. True or false.
A wave approaching land moves the water toward the land. True or false.
A deposit of wind-blown sand is a(n)?
Wind is the strongest agent of erosion. True or false.
Why is wind effective in causing erosion in deserts?
because few plants grow in deserts so wind can easily move the grains of dry sand
Deflation is the main way wind causes erosion. True or false.
Deflation can create blowouts. True or false.
Deflation can create desert pavement. True or false.
Abrasion by wind-carried sand can polish rock. True or false.
Abrasion by wind-carried sand causes little erosion. True or false.
Abrasion by wind-carried sand causes most erosion. True or false.
All sediment picked up by wind eventually falls to the ground. True or false.
When does wind-carried sediment fall to the ground?
when the wind slows down or some obstacle, such as a boulder or a clump of grass, traps it.
List two types of deposits formed by wind erosion and deposition.
1. sand dunes
2. loess deposits
Which type of sediment can be found far from its source?
Sand dunes and loess deposits result from wind erosion. True or false.
Spit is formed as...?
longshore drift deposits sand along the shore
Beach is formed as...?
waves pile up sand along the shore
Waves shape the coast through erosion by breaking down rock and transporting sand and other sediment. True or false.
Wind erosion and deposition may form sand dunes and loess deposits. True or false.
The eroded materials carried by water or wind are called?
What is deflation?
the process by which wind removes surface materials
What are the three ways wind erosion moves sediment particles of different sizes?
1. fine particles are carried through air
2. medium-sized particles skip or bounce
3. larger particles slide or roll
The erosion of sediment by wind is?
The movement of water and sediment down a beach caused by waves coming in to shore at an angle is...?
What is the major agent of erosion that has shaped Earth's land surface?
water running downhill
Water that moves over Earth's surface when it rains is called?
What are four factors that determine the amount of runoff?
1. amount of rain an area receives
2. amount of vegetation
3. type of soil
4. shape of the land
How do grasses, shrubs, and trees reduce runoff?
by absorbing water and holding soil in place
How does the type of soil effect runoff?
some types of soil absorb more water than others
How does the shape of land effect runoff?
land that is steeply sloped has more runoff than flatter land
What is a rill?
a tiny groove in soil made by flowing water
What is a gully?
a large groove, or channel, in soil formed by erosion that carries runoff after a rainstorm
What is a stream?
a channel through which water is continually flowing down a slope
When do gullies contain water?
only after it rains
How are rivers formed?
as streams flow together and form larger and larger bodies of flowing water
What is a flood plain?
a wide valley through which a river flows
What is a meander?
a loop-like bend in the course of a river
What is an oxbow lake?
a meander that has been cut off from the river
Water moving in a tiny groove in soil after a rainstorm describes what form of moving water?
Water moving in a channel after a rainstorm describes what form of moving water?
Water continually flowing down a slope through its own channel describes what form of moving water?
Water flowing downhill in a large channel describes what form of moving water?
Unlike gullies, streams rarely...
A large stream is called?
How do V-shaped valleys form?
a river forms on steep mountain slopes and follows a straight, narrow course, creating a deep v-shaped valley
When does a river develop meanders?
when it flows through easily eroded rock or sediment
A meander that has been cut off from a river is called?
an oxbow lake
What are two landforms created from deposits by rivers?
1. an alluvial fan
2. a delta
What is an alluvial fan?
a wide, sloping deposit of sediment formed where a stream leaves a mountain range
Sediments deposited where a river flows into an ocean or lake form a(n)
What makes a river valley fertile?
Deposition of new soil over a flood plain is what makes a river valley fertile.
Moving water is the major agent of the erosion that has shaped Earth's land surface. True or false.
Through erosion, a river creates valleys, waterfalls, flood plains, meanders, and oxbow lakes. True or false.
Deposition creates alluvial fans and deltas. It can also add soil to a river's flood plain. True or false.
Where a streambed curves, deposition occurs...
along the inside of the curve
Describe alluvial fan formation.
1. a stream flows out of a steep, narrow mountain valley
2. a stream suddenly becomes wider and shallower
3. the water slows down
4. sediments are deposited
Which form of moving water causes the greatest changes in the shape of the land? Explain.
Rivers cause the greatest changes in the slope of the land because rivers have large channels of water and water is a major agent of weathering and erosion.
Where a streambed curves, sediment erodes...
from the outside of the curve
What is deposition?
the process in which sediment is laid down in new locations
What is runoff?
water that flows over the ground surface rather than soaking into the ground
What is an effect of longshore drift?
beach sand moves along a coastline
If a river curves, the water moves fastest along the outside of the curve. True or false.
the process by which a glacier picks up rocks as it flows over the land
The chipping and grinding effect of rock fragments embedded in the bottom of a glacier, rock fragments held within the ice scrape and grind against bedrock
A calcite deposit that hangs from the roof of a cave
a cone-shaped calcite deposite that builds up from the floor of a cave
A region in which a layer of limestone close to the surface creates deep valleys, caverns and sinkholes.
the sudden movement of rock and soil down a slope
The rapid downhill movement of a mixture of water, rock, and soil.
a mass of rock and soil suddenly slips down a slope
A very slow downhill movement of rock and soil