Kaplan / Davis / HELP Explanation PANCE DERM
Terms in this set (97)
The drug of choice for impetigo is
cephalexin (Keflex). Cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, and azithromycin are alternatives
flesh-colored or grayish pearly papule 1
to 5 mm in diameter with a central umbilication
Impetigo is caused by
Keloids best treated
Intralesional corticosteroid injections until they seize active growth, reduce in size and stop itching, at which time they may be surgically excised with greater ease.
Acne vulgaris treatment
Retinoids (e.g., tretinoin), a topical comedolytic agent, is effective for mild to moderate forms of noninflammatory acne, which is characterized by open comedone
Actinic keratoses presentation
multiple scaly, keratotic, erythematous macules and papules on his anterior scalp, forehead, temples, nose, forearms, and dorsal hands.
Classically is termed "coin-shaped" or "discoid" as a description of these skin lesions. The lesions begin as itchy patches of vesicles and papules. These lesions later ooze serum and crust over.
(1) This is a chronic disorder that responds to moisturizers or topical steroids.
(2) Tar baths or UVB phototherapy is helpful for refractory cases.
Paraphenylenediamine is the third most common cause of
contact dermatitis in cosmetics, after fragrances and preservatives.
Scalded skin syndrome is a pediatric condition caused by an exfoliative toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus (which is a common cause of cellulitis).
The toxin splits the epidermis at the level of the stratum granulosum, causing global denudation of the skin. Scalded skin syndrome is not associated with suntanning or sunburn.
Tx: pulsed dye laser
Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is characterized by the appearance of ulcers in the mouth and a maculopapular or vesicular rash on the hands and feet. It is most frequently caused by:
Coxsackievirus type A 16, although other coxsackieviruses have occasionally been implicated.
It is characterized by oval scaly macules, papules, and
patches most commonly on the chest, shoulders, and back with hypopigmentation on dark skin and slight hyperpigmentation on light skin.
The upper trunk is the most common area involved.
Tinea versicolor is caused by
Lesions are due to competitive inhibition of
tyrosine kinase in melanocytes
Squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common form of skin cancer after basal cell carcinoma and is the most common type of cancer on
sun-exposed surfaces in older individuals.
Occurs on the upper lips
First thing that happens after a wound laceration:
Neutrophils line the wound edge within 24 hours of injury.
Pityriasis rosea is a mild inflammatory exanthem of unknown etiology.
It frequently begins with a single herald patch that is usually larger than succeeding lesions and may persist alone for a week or two before the other lesions appear.
Hints on Pityriasis rosea:
Examination reveals an oval pink patch on her right
flank and multiple pink macules on her trunk, especially on the back, where the longer axis of the lesions are aligned with the cutaneous cleavage lines.
Diaper dermatitis . The most important clinical clue is the distribution of the _____________.
The usual cause of diaper dermatitis is irritant contact dermatitis, resulting from the concomitant action of fecal
and urinary enzymes, entrapped moisture and excessive heat in the diaper area.
Avoiding tight occlusion by diapers, bathing with mild soaps and water, and frequent diaper changes constitute the essential approach to treatment.
This patient has urticaria and angioedema induced by a
hypersensitivity reaction, most likely to
Drugs are probably the most frequent cause of urticaria and angioedema, penicillin and related antibiotics being the most frequent offenders.
Salicylates, aspirin, opiates, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, contrast media, and
angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are common causes of urticaria.
Hint for Rock Mountain spotted fever
-Pt was on mountain trip
Rock Mountain spotted fever bug
So patient with varicella that has no immunization that is immunocompromised that risk of:
A 65-year-old, fair-skinned man develops scaly erythematous papules that have a sandpaper texture on his forehead. A biopsy shows nuclear crowding, hyperchromasia, and pleomorphism of the basal keratinocytes, with alteration of the normal epidermal
maturation. Hyperkeratosis is also present. Which of the following neoplasms may arise from this lesion?
Squamous cell carcinoma.
The lesion described is actinic keratosis, which is frequent on sun-exposed areas of people of fair complexion. It is related to progressive dysplastic changes triggered by the carcinogenic action of ultraviolet light. Actinic keratosis is a premalignant change, but only a small number of untreated lesions will eventually progress to invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
The lesion is covered with apparently normal skin and is soft and freely movable. The lesion has been slowly growing over the past 2 years, and the patient has experienced no discomfort.
Alopecia is due to deficiency in what vitamin?
Squamous cell Carcinoma
Squamous cell lesions typically appear as sharply demarcated, scaling, or hyperkeratotic macule, papule, or
plaque. Erythema, scaling, erosions, and crusts may occur.
SCC in situ (Bowen's disease) — Cutaneous SCC in situ typically presents as a well-demarcated, scaly patch or plaque.
The A, B, C, D, Es of melanoma recognition are valuable for patient education and for all clinicians:
●Color variegation (ie, different colors within the same region)
●Diameter greater than 6 mm
●Enlargement or evolution of color change, shape, or symptoms
Superficial spreading type of melanoma appears as a:
Variably pigmented plaque with an irregular border, ranging from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter (picture 6). In fully evolved lesions, multiple shades of red, tan, brown, blue, black, gray, and white can be appreciated.
This patient most likely has allergic contact dermatitis to metal, most likely caused by hypersensitivity to nickel. Allergic contact dermatitis is caused by a
delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction
This all points to a metal allergy, and of all metals, nickel is the most common offender.
nickel is the most common offender.
SCC or BCC can be diagnosis by
Full thickness biopsy of the edge of the lesion.
Folliculitis (choice C) is a superficial staphylococcal infection of hair follicles that presents as small, thin-walled pustules at the follicular openings. Most commonly, they appear on the scalp or extremities, as well as periorally. These fragile, yellowish-white, domed pustules develop in crops and heal in a few days.
Carbuncles vs Furuncles
Furuncles (boils) are skin abscesses caused by staphylococcal infection, which involve a hair follicle and surrounding tissue. Carbuncles are clusters of furuncles connected subcutaneously, causing deeper suppuration and scarring.
is a neuroendocrine tumor that is characterized by flushing and diarrhea caused by tumor secretion of histamine, serotonin, and prostaglandins.
Isotretinoin therapy is is primarily used as a treatment for severe acne. Is a contraindication in?
A patient that is 50 years old presents with skin color slate gray. what should you suspect?
hemochromatosis. This is a hereditary disease in which increased gastrointestinal iron absorption leads to high in deposition in the skin, liver, pancreas, and heart.
Hemochromatosis occurs in
Diabetes, cirrhosis, and heart failure.
Diagnostic test for hemochromatosis
Lichen Planus cause by what medication?
NSAIDs, lithium, hydrochlorothiazide, sulfonamide, beta blockers, tetracycline
Child with Egg allergy can outgrow the allergy by:
strict egg avoidance.
Bacteria folliculitis very particular and function that often involves the face. what to be advised?
Shaving will cause bacteria to spread. Discontinue razor.
Patient with celiac disease have what dermatological condition?
Cheilitis (Inflammation of the lips) can be caused by
Pernicious anemia may be associated with a sore and what oral condition?
Genital warts (condyloma Acuminate) can be diagnosed with
acetic acid, this turns warts white
Diagnostic test for melanoma
Infant that has tiny firm white lesions on the upper and lower eyelid, chin or cheeks:
Milia, this is due to plugging of the hair follicle 5 Keratin
__________ is a bullous disease that often begins with Bullae on the mucus membranes (oral cavity)
Sore tongue or tender tongue may occur in a patient who have deficiency in
vitamin B12, iron, folate, niacin, riboflavin.
Isotretinoin side effect
dry mouth and nose
Contact dermatitis can because by what by what fruits
skin of mangoes
Papulosqamous eruption with oily yellowish scales that involve the scalp, face, and chest.
Initial Treatment of scalp Seborrheic Dermatitis is usually a shampoo
Shampoo containing either
Zinc Pyrithione or Selenium
Facial seborrhea is initially treated low concentration of
Seborrheic dermatitis has been associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, __________, and use of neuroleptic medications.
Café au lait spot is associated with what condition
What should be evaluated for Atopic dermatitis?
Second line therapy for rosacea?
Doxycycline, tetracycline, minocycline, and erythromycin
Synthetic absorbable future compared to natural absorbable
Less tissue reaction
Patient bid and buy a black widow spider should be treated with?
-by washing the affected area with soap and water.
methocarbamol or calcium gluconate if patient has muscle spasms.
, as needed (eg,
acetaminophen, ibuprofen, oxycodone, or hydrocodone).
Bacterial meningitis causes fever, headache, nausea, confusion, and nuchal rigidity.
A purpuric rash occurs in 90% of patients who have meningococcal meningitis.
Succinycholine is contraindicated in therapy inpatients with thermal burns because it causes
Why is ointment preferred over lotion when treating atopic dermatitis?
Because it has a lower water content. water evaporates causing the skin to be dry.
Before treating patient with Isotretinoin, what lab should be taken first?
Aminotransferase, fasting serum triglyceride, liver function test, and CBC. Women should be tested for pregnancy.
Lentigines are pigmented macules that appear in sun exposed area. How should you treat this?
Tretinoin, Tazarotene, laser therapy, or cryotherapy
Vermilion border. Pt has a laceration of the lip on the vermilion border. What is the most appropriate management?
Avoid injection of local anesthetic directly into wound.
Electrolysis therapy can cause virus to flare?
herpes simplex. in addition of electrolysis may affect cardiac pacemaker function.
Infant with physiological jaundice who is getting phototherapy can have what dermatological condition?
Leukoplakia may be caused eye human papilloma virus or carcinogens in contact with the buccal muscosa
Those who are smokeless tobacco users appear to be at high risk for this condition
Oral hairy leukoplakia is and of unrelated disease caused by
Epstein-Barr virus in HIV infected patients
Livedo reticularis is a condition that causes painless molted discoloration of both thighs and lower abdomen occurring in healthy young women exposed two cold.
Alternatively, LR may be an expression of underlining systemic disease including lupus orantiphospholipid antibody syndrome.
Tinea Capitis should not be treated with Topical Clotrimazole, they are effective.
Tpoical preparations are effectively used in the treatment of tinea cruris, tinea pedis, and tinea corporis.
What dermatological condition is cause one taking silicone injection for cosmetic purposes?
Seborrhea is common in the untreated patient who is
Pediculosis Pubis (Lice) is diagnosed
It is important that sexual partner in the last month should be treated. Patient should abstain from sexual contact until the date and partner have been treated and found to be free of the infection.
Psoralen Plus Ultraviolet A (PUVA) increases the risk of
skin cancer such as squamous cell carcinoma.
Hidradenitis Suppurativa Treatment
Erythemic area + Fever+ Hot Tender + Growing lesion...Think!!
Tx: therapy options include vancomycin plus either cefotaxime or gentamicin. Antibiotics that should be avoided in this age group include tetracyclines, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and ceftriaxone
causes burning, pitching, and stinging of the feet.
What organism causes tinea pedis?
This dermatological condition causes hyper in hypo pigmentation. Patient often complain that their tan does not show?
Treatment: Selenium Sulfide Shampoo
Diaper dermatitis treatment
Keeping the area dry and applying Zinc Oxide and petrolatum.
Patient with male Baldness, is treated with finasteride what is the side effect of this drug?
Decreased libido and erectile dysfunction
Erysipelas presentation and organism?
intense erythema, induration, and a sharply demarcated border
Caused by caused by Group A Beta-Hemolytic streptococci (GABH)*
The only oral antifungal agent approved for children younger than two years for tinea capitis
Round, firm, flesh-colored nodule with a central necrotic crater, grew rapidly; resembles a "volcano" in appearance.
Something to avoid when treating lice?
do not use LINDANE with infants, children, or elderly due to potential neurotoxicity.
Lupus is what hypersensitive rxn?
Type 3 immune complex disease
Health worker allergic to latex glove. What type of hypersensitive
type 1 (immediate hypersensitivity) are IgE-mediated
Atopic disorders (eg, allergic asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis), anaphylaxis, some cases of angioedema, urticaria, and latex and some food allergie. What type of hypersensitivity?
type 1 (immediate hypersensitivity)
Patient got severe psoriasis, u already tried steroids, lubricants, salicycic acid, anthralin, and tar, so give ....
immunosuppressants / immunomodulators
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