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Strength and Conditioning - Exam 2
Terms in this set (69)
Components of a warm-up
- A general warm up may consist of 5-10 minutes of slow activity such as jogging or skipping.
- A specific warm up period incorporates movements similar to the movements of an athlete's sport. It involves 8-12 minutes of dynamic stretching focusing on movements that will work through the range of motion required for the sport.
- A measure of ROM and has static and dynamic components
- Static flexibility is the range of possible movement about a joint and its surrounding muscles during a passive movement.
- Dynamic flexibility refers to the available ROM during active movements and therefore requires voluntary muscle actions.
Factors affecting flexibility
- Joint Structure
i. Structure determines the joint's ROM
- Age and Sex
i. Older people tend to be less flexible than younger people; females tend to be more flexible than males.
- Connective Tissue
i. Elasticity and plasticity of connective tissue affect ROM
- Resistance Training with limited ROM
i. Exercise through a full ROM and develop both agonist and antagonist muscles to prevent loss of ROM.
- Muscle Bulk
i. Large muscles may impede joint movement
- Activity Level
i. An active person tends to be more flexible than an inactive one but activity alone will not improve flexibility.
When should an athlete stretch?
- Following practice and competition
i. Post practice stretching facilitates ROM improvements because of increase muscle temperature
ii. Stretching should be performed within 5-10 minutes after practice
iii. Post practice stretching may also decrease muscle soreness although the evidence on this is uncertain.
- As a separate session
i. If increase levels of flexibility are required, additional stretching sessions may be needed
ii. In this case, stretching should be preceded by a through warm up to allow for the increase in muscle temperature necessary for effective stretching
iii. This type of session can be especially useful as a recovery session on the day after a competition.
is slow and constant with the end position held for 30 seconds
o Guidelines for Static Stretching
-Get into a position that facilitates relaxation
- Move to the point in the ROM where you experience a sensation of mild discomfort. If performing partner assisted PNF stretching, communicate clearly with your partner
- Repeat unilateral stretches on both sides
o Precautions for Static Stretching
- Decrease stretch intensity if you experience pain, radiating symptoms or loss of sensation.
- Use caution when stretching a hypermobile joint
- Avoid combination movements that involve the spine
- Stabilizing muscle should be active to protect other joints and prevent unwanted movements
active muscular effort and uses a bouncing type movement in which the end position is not held
functionally based stretching exercise that uses sport specific movements to prepare the body for activity
o Guidelines for Dynamic Stretching
- Carry out 5-10 reps of each movement, either in place or over a given distance
- Progressively increase the ROM on each rep
- Increase the speed of motion on subsequent sets where appropriate
- Contract the muscles as you move through the ROM
o Precautions for Dynamic Stretching
- Move progressively through the ROM
- Move deliberately but without bouncing - movement must be controlled at all times
- Do not forsake good technique for additional ROM
Proprioception and stretching
- Stretch Reflex
i. A stretch reflex occurs when muscle spindles are stimulated during rapid stretching movement
ii. This should be avoided when stretching, as it will limit motion
- Autogenic inhibition and reciprocal inhibition
i. Autogenic inhibition is accomplished via active contraction before a passive stretch in the same muscle
ii. Reciprocal inhibition is accomplished by contracting the muscle opposing the muscle that is being passively stretched
iii. Both result from stimulation of golgi tendon organs, which cause reflexive muscle relaxation
- Pronated (overhand) grip: the palms are down, knuckles are up
- Supinated (underhand) grip: the palms are up and the knuckles are down
- Neutral grip: the knuckles point laterally
- Alternated grip: uses one hand in pronated grip and the other in supinated grip
- Hook grip: similar to the pronated grip except that the thumb is position uner the index and middle fingers
- Closed grip: the thumb is wrapped around the bar in all the grips shown
- Open grip: when the thumb does nor wrap around the bar in all the grips
- The sticking point is the most strenuous movement of a repetition, and it occurs soon after the transition from the eccentric to concentric phase.
- Instruct athletes to exhale through the sticking point and to inhale during the less stressful phase of the repetition.
i. For experienced and well resistance trained athletes performing structural exercises
ii. Will assist in maintain proper vertebral alignment and support
iii. Involves expiring against a closed glottis, which, when combined with a contracting abdomen and ribcage muscles creates rigid compartments of fluid in the lower torso and air in the upper torso
iv. Helps o establish the "flat back" and erect upper torso position in man exercises
- A stable position enables the athlete to maintain proper body alignment during an exercise, which in turn places an appropriate stress on muscles and joints
- Both free weight and machine exercises require stable position. The five point contact position provides stability for seated or supine exercises.
i. Five point contact:
1. Head, shoulders, upper back, buttocks, and feet
- Exercises performed while standing typically require the feet to be positioned slightly wider than the hip width with the heels and the balls of the feet in contact with the floor.
- Before performing machine exercises, adjust seat and pads to position the body joint primarily involved in the exercise in alignment with the machine's axis of rotation
- Types of exercises performed and equipment involved
o With the exception of power exercises, free weight exercises performed with a bar moving over the head, positioned on the back, racked on front of the shoulders, or passing over the face require one or more spotters.
o Spotting overhead exercises and those with the bar on back or front shoulders
- Promote safety of the lifter, the spotters and others nearby, these exercises should be performed in a power rack with the cross bars at an appropriate height
- Out of the rack can cause serious injury
- Executed by well trained athletes who are spotted by professionals
o Spotting over the face exercises
- Spotter grasp the bar with an alternated grip usually narrower than the athlete's grip.
• Supinated grip to spot the bar though
o DO NOT SPOT POWER EXERCISES
o Number of spotters
- Determined by load and experience and ability of athlete and spotters
- Communication between athlete and spotter
- Use a liftoff
- Amount and timing of spotting assistance
Resistance Training Program Design Variables
- Needs Analysis
- Exercise selection
- Training frequency
- Exercise Order
- Training Load and Repetitions
- Rest Periods
o Evaluation of sport
- Movement analysis: body and limb movement patterns and muscular involvement
- Physiological analysis: strength, power, hypertrophy, and muscular priorities
- Injury analysis: common sites for joint and muscle injury and causative factors
o Assessment of the Athlete
- Training status
• Type of training program
• Length of recent regular participation in previous training programs
• Level of intensity involved in previous training programs
• Degree of exercise technique experience
- Physical Testing and Evaluation
• Tests should relate to the athletes sport
• Use the results of the movements analysis to select tests
• After testing, compare results with normative or descriptive data to determine the athletes strengths and weaknesses
Exercise Selection - Exercise Type
- Core and Assistance Exercises
• Core exercises: recruit one or more large muscle areas, two or more primary joints, and receive priority when one is selecting exercises because of their direct application to the sport.
• Assistance exercises: usually recruit smaller muscle areas, involve one primary joint, and are considered less important to improving sport performance.
- Structural and Power exercises
- Structural exercises: emphasize loading the spine directly or indirectly
- Power exercises : structural exercises that are performed very quickly or explosively
Exercise Selection - Movement analysis of sport
- Sport Specific Exercises
• The more similar the training activity is to the actual sport movement, the greater the likelihood there will be a positive transfer to that sport. - specificity or SAID
- Muscle Balance
• Agonist: the muscle or muscle group actively causing the movement
• Antagonist: the sometimes passive muscle or the muscle group located on the opposite side of the limb
Exercise Selection - Exercise Technique
- Do not assume that an athlete will perform an exercise correctly
- Demonstrate the exercise and provide instruction as needed
o The number of training sessions completed in a given time period
o Common time period is one week for resistance training
o Training status:
- Affects the number of rest days needed between sessions
- Three workouts per week are recommended for many athletes to allow sufficient recovery between sessions.
The general guideline is to schedule training sessions so that there is at least one rest or recovery day but not more than three between sessions that stress the same muscle groups.
More highly resistance trained athletes can augment their training by using a split routine in which different muscle groups are trained on different days.
o Seasonal demands may limit the time available for resistance training
o Training Load and exercise type
- Athletes who train with maximal or near maximal loads require more recovery time prior to their next training session.
o Other Training
- Training frequency is influenced by the overall amount of physical stress
- Consider the effects of
• Other aerobic or anaerobic training
• Sport skill practice
• Physically demanding occupations
o Power, other core, then assistance exercises
- Power exercises: snatch, hang clean, power clean, and push jerk
- Followed by non power core exercises
- Then assistance exercises
o Upper and lower body exercises (alternated)
- Allows more recovery fully between exercises
- Circuit training: minimal rest periods
o Push pull alternated
o Supersets and Compound Sets
- Superset: two sequentially performed exercises that stress two opposing muscles or muscle areas
- Compound set: sequentially performing two different exercise of the same muscle group
"reverse" exercise arrangement where the athlete purposely fatigues a large muscle group as a result of performance of a single joint exercise prior to a multi joint exercise involving the same muscle.
Training Loads and Reps
o Terminology used to quantify mechanical work
- Mechanical work = force * displacement
- Load volume is a practical measure for the quantity of work performed in resistance training.
- Load- volume: weight units * reps
- Arrangement of reps and sets affects the intensity value, a measure of the quality of work performed.
o Relationship between load and reps
- The heavier the load, the lower the number of reps that can be performed
- Load is commonly described as a percentage of a 1RM or as a RM
o Load: most simplistically referred to as the amount of weight assigned to an exercise set; often characterized as the most critical aspect of resistance training program
o 1RM: greatest amount of weight that can be lifted with proper technique for only one repetition.
o RM: most weight lifted for a specified number of reps
o Volume: the total amount of weight lifted in a training session
o Set: a group of reps sequentially performed before the athlete stops to rest
o Repetition-volume: the total number of reps performed during a workout session
o Load volume: the total number of sets multiplied by the number of reps per set then multiplied by the weigh lifted per rep.
o Multiple vs. Single Sets
- Single set training: untrained individuals or during the first several months of training
o Training status: only one or two sets as a beginner and add sets as he/she becomes better trained
o Primary resistance training goal
- Training volume is directly based on the resistance training goal
- Strength and power
• Volume assignments for power are typically lower than those for strength training in order to max the quality of exercise
• Increases in muscular size are associated with higher training volumes and performing three or more exercises per muscle group
- Muscular endurance
• Programs for muscular endurance involve many reps per set, lighter loads and fewer sets.
The time dedicated to recovery between sets and exercises is called rest period or interest rest.
The length of rest period between sets and exercises is highly dependent on the goal of training, the relative load lifted, and the athletes training status
o Strength and Power
- Max or near max loads require longer rest periods
- Guidelines range from 2-5 minutes
- Short to moderate rest periods are required
- Typical strategies range from 30 seconds to 1.5 minutes
o Muscular Endurance
- Very short rest periods of 30 seconds or less are required
- 1 RM and Multiple RM Testing Options
o Testing the 1RM
- 1RM testing requires adequate training status and experience with being tested
- Choose core exercises for the 1RM testing
- Choose exercises that can accurately and consistently asses muscular strength and that allow the athlete to maintain correct body position throughout testing.
- Estimating a 1RM
o Using a 1RM table
o Using Predicting Equations
o Multiple RM Testing based on goal reps
- Assigning load and reps based on training goal
o Reps max continuum
- Use relatively heavy loads if the goal is strength or power
- Use moderate loads for hypertrophy
- Use light loads for muscular endurance
- A certain RM emphasizes a certain outcome but training benefits are blended at an given RM
o Percentage of the 1RM
- The training goal is attained when the athlete lifts a load of a certain percentage of the 1RM for the goal number of reps
2 for 2 rule
a conservative method that can be used to increase an athlete's training loads; if the athlete can perform two or more reps over his or her assigned rep goal in the last set in two consecutive workouts for a given exercise, weight should be added to that exercise the next training session.
Primary resistance training goals
a. Typically to improve strength, power, hypertrophy, or muscular endurance
b. Concentrate on one training outcome per season
Mechanical Model of Plyometric Exercise
o Elastic energy in tendons and muscles is increased with rapid stretch and then briefly stored
o If a concentric muscle action follows immediately, the stored energy is release immediately, contributing to the total force production
o The series elastic component (SEC) when stretched stores elastic energy that increases the force produced
o The contractile component (CC) is the primary source of the muscle force during a concentric muscle action.
o The parallel elastic component (PEC) exerts a passive force with unstimulated muscle stretch
Neurophysical Model of Plyometric Exercise
o This model involves potentiation of the concentric muscle action by use of the stretch reflex.
- Potentiation: change in the force-velocity characteristics of the muscle's contractile components caused by a stretch
o Stretch reflex: the body's involuntary response to an external stimulus that stretches the muscles
Stretch Shortening Cycle
o The SSC employs both the energy storage of the SEC and stimulation of the stretch reflex to facilitate maximal increase in the muscle recruitment over a minimal amount of time
o Three phases: eccentric, amortization, and concentric
Fast rate of musclotendinous stretch is vital to muscle recruitment and activity The SSC combines the mechanical and neurophyscial mechanisms and is the basis of plyometric exercise. A rapid eccentric muscle action stimulates the stretch reflex and storage of elastic energy, which increase the force produced during subsequent concentric action.
Plyometric Program Design Variables
- Program Length
- Warm Up
o Lower body Plyometrics
- Appropriate for virtually any athlete of any sport
- Direction of movement varies by sport, but many sports require athletes to produce maximal vertical or lateral movement in a short amount of time
- There are a wide variety of lower body drills with various intensity levels and directional movements.
o Upper Body Plyometrics
- Medicine ball throws, catches, and several types of pushups
o Trunk Plyometrics
- Exercises for the trunk that may be performed plyometrically provided that movement modifications are made
- Movements must be shorter and quicker to allow stimulation and use of the stretch reflex
Intensity for Plyometrics
o Plyometric intensity refers to the amount of stress placed on muscles, connective tissues and joints
o It is controlled primarily by the plyometric drill, generally as the intensity increases the volume should decrease
Frequency of Plyometrics
o 48-72 hours between plyometric sessions is a typical recovery time guideline for prescribing Plyometrics. Athletes will commonly perform two to four sessions per week
o The time between sets is determined by a proper work to rest ratio and is specific to the volume and the type of drill being performed.
o Drills should not be thought of as cardio but power training and drills of the same body area should not be performed two days in succession
o For lower body drills - contacts per workout
o Upper body drills - number of throws or catches per workout
Program Length Plyometrics
o 6-10 weeks
o 4 weeks for vertical jump
o Plyometircs is a form of resistance training and thus must follow the principles of progressive overload.
Warm Up for Plyometrics
o Must begin with a general warm up, stretching and a specific warm up
o The specific warm up should consist of low intensity dynamic movements
o Consider both physical and emotional maturity
o The primary goal is to develop neuromuscular control and anaerobic skills that will carry over into adult athetic participation
o Gradually progress from simple to complex
o Recovery time between workouts should be a minimum of two to three days
o Depth jumps and high intensity lower body Plyometrics are contraindicated for this population
o Program should include no more than five low to moderate intensity exercises
o The volume should be lower
o Recovery time between workouts should be three to four days
o In order to execute techniques, athletes must skillfully apply force - mass*acceleration
- The change in momentum from a force, measured as the product of force *time
- A basic objective of training is to move the force time curve upward and to the left, generating a greater impulse and momentum during limited time which force is applied
- The rate of doing work, force * velocity
- High power outputs are required to rapidly accelerate, decelerate, or achieve high velocities
o Athletes skillfully apply forces when executing movement techniques, because of time and velocity constraints a technique can be characterized in terms of task specific impulse and power. The ability to achieve high movement velocities and accelerations involve high RFD as well as force application across a range of power outputs and muscle actions.
o Practical Implications
- Functional vs. Simple Movements
• Speed in complex, functional movements involves an interplay of neuromuscular, mechanical, and energetic factors
• Speed in complex movements' correlates poorly with speed in unresisted, elementary actions.
• Many functional tasks begin with a prep counter movement and utilize the SSC.
o SSC: eccentric contraction coupling phenomenon in which the muscle tendon complexes are rapidly and forcibly lengthened or stretch loaded and immediately shortened in a reactive or elastic manner; springlike prep counter movement of many functional tasks.
• Training activities aimed at improving SSC performance should fulfill two criteria:
o Involve skillful multijoint movements that transmit forces through the kinetic chain and exploit elastic reflexive mechanisms.
o In order to manage fatigue and emphasize work quality and technique, they should be structured around brief work bouts or clusters separated by frequent rest pauses.
• Reactive ability: a characteristic of explosive strength exhibited in SSC actions that can be improved through explosive training.
• Reaction time: relatively untrainable and correlates poorly with movement action time or performance in many explosive events.
- Aerobic endurance vs. power sports
• Explosive strength qualities also play an important role in aerobic endurance activities
o Ground contact times at intermediate running speeds are longer than those at top speed but significantly shorter than required for max force development
o Power, impulse, and reactive ability are important determinants of running performance over any distance.
o SSC actions are prevalent in athletic tasks. The target activity's movement mechanics have important implication in training and should be addressed in the task analysis
o Stride frequency tends to vary among individuals and generally is more trainable than stride length
o Sprinting Performance and Stride Analysis
- Linear sprinting involves a series of subtasks - the start, acceleration, and max velocity
- Though the movement mechanics of these two subtasks are distinct, both are characterized by two phases
- Running is a ballistic mode of locomotion alternating phases of flightand single leg support.
- Following is a summary of key muscular requirements in max velocity sprinting:
• As the recovery leg swings forward, eccentric knee flexor activity controls its forward momentum and helps prepare for an efficient touchdown
• During ground support, the high moment at the ankle joint indicates the importance of the plantar flexors.
• Effort during the late support phase neither is essential to sprinting efficiency nor poses a high risk of injury.
o Training goals
- Minimize braking forces at ground contact by maximizing the backward velocity of the leg and foot at touchdown and by planting the foot directly beneath the center of gravity
- Emphasize brief ground support times as a means of achieving rapid stride rate
- Emphasize functional training of the hamstring muscle group with respect to its biarticular structure and dual mode during late recovery
- Eccentric knee flexor strength is the most important aspect limiting recovery of the leg as it swings forward.
o Running speed is the interaction of stride frequency and stride length. The goal of sprinting is to achieve high stride frequency and optimal stride length, with explosive horizontal push off and minimum vertical impulse.
o Athletes collective coordinative abilities
- Adaptive ability: modification of action sequence upon observation or anticipation of novel or changing conditions and situations.
- Balance: static and dynamic equilibrium
- Combinatory equilibrium: coordination of body movements into a given action
- Differentiation: accurate, economical adjustment of body movements and mechanics
- Orientation: spatial and temporal control of body movements
- Reactiveness: quick, well directed response to stimuli
- Rhythm: observation and implementation of dynamic motion pattern, timing, and variation
o Skill Classification
- General vs. special skills
- Closed vs. open skills
- Continuous vs discrete vs serial skills
o Change in velocity
- An Initial speed and direction
- Decrease or increase in speed and redirection of movement
- Final speed and direction
o Locomotion mode
- The specific locomotion modes performed and the movement techniques used to execute them discretely
- The specific sequences in which they are performed and the techniques used to transition between them serially
o Backpedal running is a distinct technique rather than a simple reversal if forward running; Athletes maximal backward running velocities tend to be 60-80 percent of their forward velocities.
o Technical Considerations
- Linear sprinting can be described as a closed serial task
• Velocity: the athlete starts with an initial speed of zero and maximally accelerates forward and achieves maximum speed over a distance with minimum deceleration or redirection.
• Mode: the athlete runs forward by executing a series of discrete subtasks without transitioning to another mode of locomotion
- Certain sprinting mechanics - including body position, visual focus, leg action, arm action and braking mechanics - can be adapted to various multidirectional tasks.
- Considering the forces involved in explosive deceleration and the role of SSC actions in redirection, some principles of plyometric training are also applicable
- Braking mechanics
• Instruct athlete to run forward achieving second gear (1/2 speed) and then decelerate and stop within three steps
• Third gear (3/4 speed) and then decelerate and stop within five steps
• Fourth gear (full speed) and then decelerate and stop within seven steps
Primary Training Method
- The execution of sound movement technique in a specific task
- Athletes should perform tasks at submax learning speeds to establish proper mechanics and as they master the skill move more towards full or competition speeds.
Secondary Training Method
- Sprint Resistance
• Gravity resisted running or other means of overlaod effect
• Objective is to provide resistance without arresting the athletes movement mechanics, primarily as a means of improving explosive strength and stride length
- Sprint Assistance
• Gravity assisted running, high speed towing, r other means of achieving overspeed effect
• Objective to is provide assistance without significantly altering the athletes movement mechanics, primarily as a means of improving stride rate
Tertiary Training Method
• Inadequate ROM for a specific task can result in improper foot placement, longer ground times, and higher braking forces
• Identify limitation due to flexibility and address them in training
• Prioritize strength training tasks by their dynamic correspondence with the target activity
• SSC actions usually deserve high priority in speed and agility training
- Speed endurance
• Repetition methods are appropriate for speed and agility training
• Competitive trial and interval methods are appropriate for speed endurance training
Factors of Aerobic Endurance Training
- Maximal Aerobic Power
o As the duration of an aerobic endurance event increases, so does the proportion of the total energy that must be supplied by an aerobic metabolism.
o There is a high correlation between VO2max and performance in aerobic endurance events.
- Lactate threshold
o In aerobic endurance events the best competitor among athletes with similar VO2max values is typically the person who can sustain aerobic energy production at the highest percentage of his or her VO2max without accumulating large amounts of lactic acid in the muscle and blood.
o ** The speed of movement or the percentage of VO2max at which a specific blood lactate concentration begins to increase above resting levels.
- Exercise Economy
o A measure of the energy cost of activity at a given exercise velocity: exercise economy.
o An improvement in exercise economy can enhance maximal aerobic power (VO2max) and lactate threshold.
Exercise Program Variables - Endurance
- exercise mode
- training frequency
- training intensity
- exercise duration
- exercise progression
Exercise Mode: Endurance
o Exercise Mode is the specific activity performed by the athlete: cycling, running, swimming, etc.
o The more specific the training mode is to the sport, the greater improvement in performance.
Training Frequency: Endurance
o The number of training sessions conducted per day or week
o Frequency of training sessions will depend on the interaction of the exercise intensity and duration, the training status of the athlete, and the specific sport season
Training Intensity : Endurance
o Adaptations in the body are specific to the intensity of the training session
o High intensity aerobic exercise increases cardiovascular and respiratory function and allows for improved oxygen delivery to the working muscles
o Increasing exercise intensity may also benefit skeletal muscle adaptations by affecting muscle fiber recruitment.
o Heart Rate
- The most frequently used method for prescribing aerobic exercise intensity
Exercise Duration : Endurance
o The length of time of the training session
o Duration is often influenced by the exercise intensity: the linger the duration the lower the intensity
Exercise Progression: Endurance
o Progression of an aerobic endurance program involves increasing the frequency, intensity, and duration
o Frequency, intensity, or duration should not increase more than ten percent per week
o When it is not feasible to increase frequency or duration, progression can occur with intensity manipulation
o Progression of intensity should be monitored to prevent overtraining
Training Types: Endurance
- Long Slow Distance
- Pace/Tempo Training
- Interval Training
- Repetition Training
- Fartlek Training
Long Slow Distance
a. Training is longer than the race distance ( 30 minutes to 2 hours) at 70% VO2max
b. Adaptations from this exercise include the following:
i. Enhances the body's ability to clear lactate
ii. Chronic use of this type of training causes an eventual shift of Type 11x fibers to Type 1 fibers
c. Intensity is lower than that of competition, which may be a disadvantage if too much LSD training is used
a. Intensity at or slightly above competition intensity, corresponding to the lactate threshold
i. Steady pace/tempo training: 20 to 30 minutes of continuous training at the lactate threshold
ii. Intermittent pace/tempo training: a series of short intervals with brief recovery periods
i. Develop a sense of race pace and enhance the body's ability to sustain exercise at that pace
ii. Improve running economy and increase lactate threshold
a. Exercise at an intensity close to VO2max for intervals of 3 to 5 minutes. Work: rest ratio should be 1:1
b. This allows athletes to train at intensities close to VO2max for a greater amount of time
c. It increases VO2max and enhances anaerobic metabolism
d. Method should be used sparingly, and only when training athletes with a firm aerobic endurance training base
a. Conducted at intensities greater than VO2max with work intervals lasting 30-90 seconds
b. Work:rest ration is about 1:5
c. Long recovery periods needed between sessions
d. Benefits include
i. Improved running and speed economy
ii. Increased capacity and tolerance for anaerobic metabolism
a. Combines other methods of training
b. Easy running combined with hills or short fast bursts
c. Can be adapted for cycling and swimming
d. Benefits most likely include
i. Enhanced VO2max
ii. Increased lactate threshold
iii. Improved running economy and fuel utilization
The various types of training induce different physiological responses. A sound program should incorporate all types of training into the athlete's weekly, monthly, and yearly training schedule.
Application of Training
- Offseason (Base Training)
o Begin with long duration and low intensity. Gradually increase intensity and to a lesser extent duration
o Focus on increasing intensity, maintaining or reducing duration, and incorporating all types of training
- In season (competition)
o Program should be designed around competition, with low intensity and short duration training just before race days.
- Postseason (Active rest)
o Focus on recovering from the competitive season while maintaining on sufficient fitness
o Macrocycle: an entire training year but may also be a period of many months up to four years.
o Mesocycle: two or more cycles within the macrocycle, each lasting several weeks to several months
o Microcycles: typically one week long but could last up to four weeks, depending on the program.
involves shifting training priorities from non sport specific activities of high volume and low intensity to sport specific activities of low volume and high intensity over a period of many weeks to prevent overtraining and optimize performance
o The initial period is usually the longest and occurs during the time of the year when there are no competitions and only a limited number of sport specific practices or game strategy sessions
o The major emphasis of this period is establishing a base level of conditioning to increase the athlete's tolerance for more intense training
o Hypertrophy/Endurance Phase
- Very low to moderate intensity (50-75%) and very high to moderate volume (three to six sets of 10-20 reps)
o Basic strength phase
- High intensity (80-90%) and moderate volume (three to five sets of four to eight reps
o Strength/Power Phase
- High intensity (75-95%) and low volume (three to five sets of two to five reps)
First Transition Period
o Between the prep and competitive periods to denote the break between high volume and high intensity training.
- Decrease the volume and intensity to get the body ready for the next phase of training.
o For peaking, athletes use very high intensity (above 93%) and very low volume (one to three sets of one to three reps)
o For maintenance athletes use moderate intensity (80-85%)and moderate volume (two to three sets of about six to right reps)
o This period will be longer with avasion compared to non avasion sports
o 1-3 weeks long, it is hard to peak longer than this
Second Transition Period
o Between the competitive season and the next macrocycle's prep phase
o Consists of recreational activity that mat not involve resistance training
Post season period
non sport specific activity
Sport Season and Periodization
o Between post season and six weeks prior to the first contest of the next season's year.
o The longest period
o Leads up to the first contest and commonly contains the late stages of the prep period and the first transition period
o Contains all the contests scheduled that year, including any tournament
o After the final contest
o Active rest for the athletes until they start the next seasons off season or prep period
- Linear: traditional resistance training periodization model will gradually progressive mesocycle increases in intensity over time
- Undulating or nonlinear: a periodization model alternative that involves large fluctuation in the load and volume assignments for core exercises
Sets found in the same folder
Chapter 18; Plyometric Training
Sets with similar terms
CSCS Book Notes Ch15
NSCA Chap 17
Ch. 15 Resistance Training
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