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physiology exam 3; level 1 questions
Terms in this set (67)
what is the role of the afferent division of the nervous system?
carry information from sensory receptors to the CNS.
The ability to tell where our body is in space and to sense the relative locations of different body parts.
what are the common elements of all sensory pathways?
a sensor and a sensory neuron. could be one cell or two.
List and briefly describe the 4 major types of somatic receptors based on the type of stimulus to which they are most sensitive.
mechanoreceptors- pressure, sound, stretch, etc.
chemoreceptors- specific chemicals
photoreceptors- photons of light
thermoreceptors- heat and cold
The receptors of each primary sensory neuron pick up information from a specific area, known as ______.
match the brain area with the sensory information processed there:
c. visual information
2. cerebrum (B)(C)(D)
3. medulla (A)(D)
5. none of the above
the conversion of stimulus energy into a change in membrane potential is called ______. the form of energy to which a receptor responds is called its ______. The minimum stimulus required to activate a receptor is known as the __________.
transduction; adequate stimulus; threshold
When a sensory receptor membrane depolarizes (or hyperpolarizes in a few cases), the change in membrane potential is called the ______ potential. Is this the graded potential or an all-or-nothing potential?
receptor potentials are graded potentials
Explain what is meant by the adequate stimulus to a receptor.
adequate stimulus- form of energy to which a receptor is most sensitive.
The organization of sensory regions in the _______ of the brain preserves the topographical organization of receptors on the skin, eye, or the other regions. However, there are exceptions to this rule. In which two senses does the brain rely on the timing of the receptor activation to determine the location of the initial stimulus?
cortex; exceptions- olfaction and hearing
What is lateral inhibition?
sensory neurons surrounding a sensory field are inhibited, which enhances contrast between the stimulus and surrounding areas.
define tonic receptors and list some examples. define phasic receptors and give some examples. Which type adapts?
tonic receptors, such as heat, adapt slowly and respond to stimuli that need to be constantly monitored.
phasic receptors adapt rapidly and stop responding unless the stimulus changes. An example is smell.
heart pain perceived as coming from the neck and down the left arm is an example of _______ pain.
what are the 5 basic tastes? what is the adaptive significance of each taste sensation?
sweet and umami indicate nutritious foods, and bitter may contain toxins. Salty (Na+) and sour (H+) ions are related to body osmolarity and pH, respectively.
the unit of sound wave measurement is __, which is a measure of the frequency of sound waves per second. the loudness, or intensity, of a sound is a function of the ___ of the sound waves and is measure in ________. The range of hearing for the average human ear is from ____ to ____ [units], with the most acute hearing in the range of _____ to ______ [units].
sound waves per second- hertz (Hz). loudness- a function of the wave amplitude and measured in decibels (dB). range of hearing: 20-20,000 Hz. Most acute hearing: 1,000-3,000 Hz.
which structure of the inner ear codes sound for pitch? define spatial coding.
basilar membrane. Spatial coding- association of wave frequencies with different area membranes.
loud noises cause action potentials to: (choose all correct answers)
a. fire more frequently
b. have higher amplitudes
c. have longer refractory periods
ince sound waves have been transformed into electrical signals in the cochlea, sensory neurons transfer information to the _____, from which collaterals then take the information to the _____ and _____. the main auditory pathway synapses in the ____ and _______ before finally projecting to the _____ in the ____.
signals from the cochlea to the medulla, with collaterals to reticular formation and cerebellum. synapses in midbrain and thalamus before projecting to auditory cortex in the cerebrum.
the parts of the vestibular apparatus that tell our brain about our movements through space are the ____, which sense rotation, and the _____ organs, which respond to linear forces.
semicircular canals- rotation; otolith organs- linear forces
list the following structurs in the sequence in which a beam of light entering the eye will encounter them: a) aqueous humor, b) cornea, c) lens, d) pupil, e) retina
cornea (b), aqueous humor (a), pupil (d), lens(c), retina (e)
the 3 primary colors of vision are ____, ____, & _____. White light containing these colors stimulates photoreceptors called _____. Lack the ability to distinguish some colors is called _____.
red, blue, and green; cones; color blindness
list the 6 types of cells found in the retina, and briefly describe their functions.
rods and cones (photoreceptors), bipolar cells, ganglion cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells. Photoreceptors transduce light energy. Remaining cells carry out signal processing.
Name the 2 efferent divisions of the peripheral nervous system. what type of effectors does each control?
somatic motor- skeletal muscles
autonomic- smooth and cardiac muscle, glands, and some adipose tissue
the autonomic nervous system is sometimes called the _____ nervous system. Why is this an appropriate name? List some functions controlled by the ANS.
visceral nervous system because it controls internal organs (viscera) and functions such as heart rate and digestion.
what are the 2 branches of the ANS? how are these branches distinguished from each other anatomically and physiologically?
sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. Sympathetic neurons exit the spinal cord in the thoracic and lumbar regions; ganglia are close to the spinal cord. parasympathetic exit from the brain stem or sacral region; ganglia on or close to their targets. Sympathetic- fight-or-flight; parasympathetic- rest-and-digest.
which neurosecretory endocrine gland is closely allied to the sympathetic branch?
neurons that secrete acetylcholine are described as ______ neurons, whereas those that secrete norepinephrine are called wither ____ or ____ neurons.
cholinergic- acetylcholine; adrenergic or noradrenergic- norepinephrine.
list 4 things that can happen to autonomic neurotransmitters after they are released into a synapse.
diffuse away from the synapse, broken down by enzymes in the synapse, taken back into the presynaptic neuron, or bind to a membrane receptor.
the main enzyme responsible for catecholamine degradation is ____, abbreviated as ___.
monoamine oxidase, MAO
somatic motor pathways
a) are excitatory or inhibitory?
b) are composed of a single neuron or a preganglionic and postganglionic neuron?
c) synapse with glands or with smooth, cardiac, or skeletal muscle?
excitatory, single neuron, and synapse with skeletal muscle
What is acetylcholinesterase? describe its action.
enzyme that breaks down ACh
what kind od receptor is found on the postsynaptic cell in a neuromuscular junction?
nicotinic cholinergic receptors
the 3 types of muscle tissue found in the human body are ____, ____, and ____. which type is attached to the bones, enabling it to control body movement?
smooth, cardiac, skeletal. skeletal are attached to bones.
which two muscle types are striated?
cardiac and skeletal muscle
which type of muscle tissue is controlled only by somatic motor neurons?
which of the following statement(s) is (are) true about skeletal muscles?
a) they constitute about 60% of a person's total body weight.
b) they position and move the skeleton
c) the insertion of the muscle is more distal or mobile than the origin.
d) they are often paired into antagonistic muscle groups called flexors and extensors
arrange the following skeletal muscle components in order from outermost to innermost: sarcolemma, CT sheath, thick and thin filaments, myofibrils.
CT, sarcolemma, myofibrils, thick and thin filaments
the modified ER of skeletal muscle is called the ____. its role is to sequester ____ ions.
sarcoplasmic reticulum; Ca2+ ions
t-tubules allow _____ to move to the inferior of the muscle fiber.
list the 6 proteins that make up the myofibrils. which protein creates the power stroke for contraction?
actin, myosin, troponin, tropomyosin, titin, and nebulin. myosin produces a power stroke.
list the letters used to label the elements of a sarcomere. which band has a Z disk in the middle? which is the darkest band? why? which element forms the boundaries of a sarcomere? name the line that divides the A band in half. what is the function of this line?
Z disk- ends of sarcomere. I band- Z disk in the middle. A band (thick filaments)-darkest; H zone lighter region of the A band. M line divides the A band in half ; thick filaments link to each other.
briefly explain the functions of titin and nebulin.
they keep actin and myosin in alignment. titin helps stretched muscles return to resting length.
during contraction, the ___ band remains a constant length. this band is composed primarily of ____ molecules. which components approach each other during contraction?
a band; myosin. z disks approach each other.
explain the sliding filament theory
contraction occurs when thin and thick filaments slide past each other as myosin binds to actin, swivels, and pulls actin toward the center of the sarcomere.
explain the roles of troponin, tropomyosin, and Ca2+ in skeletal muscle contraction.
Ca2+ binds to troponin, which repositions tropomyosin, uncovering actin's myosin-binding sites.
which neurotransmitter is released nu somatic motor neurons?
what is the motor end plate, and what kinds of receptors are found there? explain how neurotransmitter binding to these receptors creates an action potential.
the region of a muscle fiber where the synapse occurs. contains Ach receptors. influx of na+ through ACh receptor-channels depolarizes muscle.
match the following characteristics with the right muscles;
a. has the largest diameter
b. uses anaerobic metabolism, fatigues quick
c. had the most blood vessels
d. has some myoglobin
e. is used for quick fine movements
f. is also called the red muscle
g. uses a combo of oxidative and glycolytic metabolism
h. has the most mitochondria
1. fast-twitch glycolytic fibers (a,b,e)
2. fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic fibers (d,f,g)
3. slow-twitch oxidative fibers (c,d,f,h)
a single contraction-relaxation cycle in a skeletal muscle fiber is known as an ______.
list the steps of skeletal muscle contraction that require ATP
ATP binding- myosin dissociates from actin. ATP hydrolysis- myosin head swings and binds to a new actin. release of Pi initiates the power stroke.
the basic unit of contraction in an intact skeletal muscle is the ______. the force of contraction within a skeletal muscle is ceased by _____ additional motor units.
motor unit; recruitment
the 2 functional types of smooth muscle are ____ and _____
single-unit (visceral) and multiunit
All neural reflexes begin with a(n) _____ that activates a receptor
somatic reflexes involve _____ muscles; _____ (or visceral) reflexes are controlled by autonomic neurons.
the pathway pattern that brings information from many neurons into a smaller number of neurons is known as ______.
when the axon terminal of a modulatory neuron (cell M) terminates close to the axon terminal of a presunaptic cell (cell P) and decreases the amount of neurotransmitter release by cell P, the resulting type of modulation is called ______.
autonomic reflexes are also called ________ reflexes. Why?
visceral reflexes because many of them involve internal organs ( the viscera)
some autonomic reflexes are spinal reflexes; others are intergrated in the brain. List some examples of each.
spinal reflexes: urination and defecation. cranial reflexes: control of heart rate, BP, and body temp
Which part of the brain transforms emotions into somatic sensation and visceral function? list the three autonomic reflexes that are linked to emotions
limbic system. emotional reflexes: blushing, heart rate, gastrointestinal function.
how many synapses occur in the simplest autonomic reflexes? where do the synapses occur?
2 neuron-neuron synapses in the spinal cord and the autonomic ganglion, and one neuron-target synapse
list the three types of sensory receptors that convey info for muscle reflexes.
Golgi tendon organ, the muscle spindle, and the joint capsule mechanoreceptors
because of the tonic activity in neurons, a resulting muscle maintains a low level of tension known as ____.
stretching a skeletal muscle causes sensory neurons to (increase/decrease) their rate of firing , causing the muscle to contract, thereby relieving the stretch. why is this a useful reflex?
increase. this reflex prevents damage from overstretching.
a. muscle spindle
b. Golgi tendon organ
c. joint capsule mechanoreceptor
1. is strictly a sensory receptor
2. has sensory neurons that send info to the CNS
3. is associated with two types of motor neurons
4. conveys info about the relative positioning of bones
5. is innervated by gamma motor neurons
6. modulates activity in alpha motor neurons
a) 2, 3, 5, 6
b) 1, 2, 6
c) 1, 2, 4
the Golgi tendon organ responds to both ____ and ____, although ____ elicits the stronger response. Its activation ( increases/decreases) muscle contraction via the ____ neuron.
stretch; contraction; decreases; alpha motor neuron
the simplest reflex requires a minimum of how many neurons? how many synapses? give an example.
2 neurons and 1 synapse between them (monosynaptic). the knee jerk (patellar tendon) reflex is an example.
List and differentiate the 3 categories of movement. give an example of each.
reflex movements, such as knee jerk, can be integrated in the spinal cord. Voluntary movements, such as playing the piano, and rhythmic movements, such as walking, must involve the brain. Reflex movements are involuntary; the initiation, modulation, and termination of rhythmic movements are voluntary.
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