People - For Jan Rreview

Cornelius Vanderbilt
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Robber BaronDerogatory nickname for the industrialists of the Gilded Age. It refers to the unfair business practices they engaged in and their mistreatment of workers. - 对镀金时代的工业家的贬义绰号。它指的是他们所从事的不公平商业行为以及对工人的虐待。ScabA replacement worker hired during a strike. - 在罢工期间雇用的替代工人。New ImmigrantsThe name for the immigrants who arrived in the United States in the late 1800s and early 1900s. They were different from the "Old Immigrants" in that they were often from Southern and Eastern Europe, were Catholic, Orthodox Christian or Jewish instead of Protestant. Unlike earlier groups of immigrants, they were also often poor and uneducated with few skills. ~ 1800年代末和1900年代初到达美国的移民的名字。他们与"旧移民"的不同之处在于,他们通常来自南欧和东欧,是天主教徒,东正教徒或犹太教徒,而不是新教徒。与早期的移民群体不同,他们通常也很贫穷,没有什么技能而没有受过教育。Elisha OtisInventor of a safe electric elevator. His invention made skyscrapers possible. ~ 安全电动电梯的发明者。他的发明使摩天大楼成为可能。Thomas EdisonProlific American inventor. His creations included the electric lightbulb, phonograph (record player) and movie camera. ~ 多产的美国发明家。他的创作包括电灯泡,留声机(电唱机)和电影摄影机。Alexander Graham BellInventor of the telephone and founder of the various Bell Telephone Companies. ~ 电话的发明者和各种贝尔电话公司的创始人。Frederick Law OlmstedChampion of the City Beautiful Movement and designer of many famous city parks including Central Park in New York City. ~ 城市美丽运动的冠军和许多著名城市公园的设计师,包括纽约市的中央公园。Joseph PulitzerAmerican newspaper publisher who helped pioneer the style of yellow journalism. His primary rival was William Randolph Hearst. ~ 美国报纸出版商,曾帮助开拓黄色新闻风格。他的主要竞争对手是威廉·伦道夫·赫斯特。William Randolph HearstAmerican newspaper publisher who helped pioneer the style of yellow journalism. His primary rival was Joseph Pulitzer. ~ 美国报纸出版商,曾帮助开拓黄色新闻风格。他的主要竞争对手是约瑟夫·普利策。MuckrakerA journalist at the turn of the century who research and published stories and books uncovering political or business scandal. The term was coined by President Theodore Roosevelt. ~ 世纪之交的新闻工作者,研究和出版揭露政治或商业丑闻的故事和书籍。这个词是由西奥多·罗斯福总统创造的。Lincoln SteffensMuckraker and author of The Same of the Cities about corruption in city governments. ~ 穆克(Muckraker)和《城市相同》中有关城市政府腐败的作者。Ida TarbellMuckraker and author of a tell-all book about John D. Rockefeller and the rise of Standard Oil. ~ 穆克(Muckraker)是有关约翰·洛克菲勒(John D. Rockefeller)和标准石油崛起的通俗小说的作者。Jacob RiisMuckraker, photographer and author of the book How the Other Half Lives about the life in city slums. ~ Muckraker,摄影师和《另一半如何生活》一书的作者,讲述了城市贫民窟的生活。Nellie BlyMuckraker who wrote about corruption in New York government and business and traveled around the world in 72 days. ~ 撰写有关纽约政府和商业腐败的文章的穆克(Muckraker)在72天之内环游了世界。Upton SinclairMuckraker and author of The Jungle about working and sanitary conditions in meat packing plants in Chicago at the turn of the century. ~ Muckraker和《丛林》一书的作者,讲述了世纪之交芝加哥的肉类包装厂的工作和卫生条件。William Jennings BryanPopulist, Progressive, and later democratic leader who championed the rights of farmers. His "Cross of Gold" speech catapulted him to national fame. He ran four times for president but never won. ~ 拥护农民权利的民粹主义者,进步主义者和后来的民主领袖。他的《金十字》演讲使他声名him起。他竞选总统四次,但从未获胜。William McKinleyRepublican President first elected in 1896. He defeated William Jennings Bryan. Reelected in 1900, he led the nation through the Spanish-American War, but was assassinated. ~ 共和党总统于1896年首次当选。他击败了威廉·詹宁斯·布莱恩。 1900年再次当选,他带领国家度过了美西战争,但遭到暗杀。ProgressivesGroups of people at the turn of the century interested in making change in society, business and government. They were often urban, northeastern, educated, middle class, and protestant. ~ 世纪之交的一群人对改变社会,商业和政府感兴趣。他们通常是城市人,东北人,受过教育的中产阶级和新教徒。Jane AddamsFounder of the Settlement House movement. ~ 移民安置运动的创始人。John DeweyAdvocate for education reform at the turn of the century. He championed the development of normal schools, which were colleges that prepared future teachers. ~ 倡导世纪之交的教育改革。他支持师范学校的发展,师范学校是为未来的教师做准备的大学。Susan B. AnthonyEarly champion of women's suffrage. She headed the NAWSA. She was honored when a silver dollar coin was minted in 1979 with her likeness. ~ 妇女选举权的早期冠军。她领导了NAWSA。当她以自己的头像在1979年铸造一枚银元硬币时,她感到很荣幸。Elizabeth Cady StantonEarly champion of women's suffrage. She cofounded a group with Susan B. Anthony. ~ 妇女选举权的早期冠军。她与Susan B. Anthony共同创立了一个小组。National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)Major organization working for women's suffrage. It was led first by Susan B. Anthony and later by Carrie Chapman Catt. ~ 从事妇女选举权的主要组织。它首先由Susan B. Anthony领导,然后由Carrie Chapman Catt领导。Alice PaulAdvocate for women's suffrage in the early 1900s. She founded the National Women's Party and used more aggressive tactics to publicize the movement. ~ 倡导妇女在1900年代初的选举权。她成立了全国妇女党,并使用更具侵略性的策略来宣传这一运动。National Woman's Party (NWP)Organization founded by Alice Paul in 1916 to work for women's suffrage. They used more aggressive tactics to spread their message. ~ 由爱丽丝·保罗(Alice Paul)在1916年创立的致力于妇女选举权的组织。他们使用更激进的策略来传播他们的信息。Carrie Chapman CattLeader of the NAWSA in the early 1900s. She succeeded Susan B. Anthony and saw the ratification of the 19th Amendment. ~ 1900年代初期,NAWSA的负责人。她继承了苏珊·安东尼(Susan B. Anthony),并看到了第19条修正案的批准。American Anti-Imperialist LeagueOrganization of Americans opposed to imperialism. ~ 反对帝国主义的美国人组织。Rough RidersNickname for Theodore Roosevelt's cavalry regiment in Cuba during the Spanish-American War. ~ 美西战争期间,古巴的西奥多·罗斯福骑兵团的绰号。Smoked YankeesNickname for African-American troops during the Spanish-American War. ~ 西班牙裔美国人战争期间非裔美国人部队的昵称。William Howard TaftAmerican governor of the Philippines after the Spanish-American War and later president of the United States. ~ 西班牙裔美国人战争后,菲律宾的美国州长,后来的美国总统。John HayAmerican Secretary of State who introduced the Open Door Policy. ~ 介绍国务卿政策的美国国务卿。Wilhelm IIKing or Kaiser of Germany during World War I 第一次世界大战期间德国国王或皇帝Archduke Franz FerdinandSon of the king of Austria-Hungary who was assassinated in 1914 along with his wife. Their deaths were the spark that started World War I. 奥匈帝国国王的儿子,他于1914年与妻子一起被暗杀。他们的死是第一次世界大战的火花。Harlem HellfightersNickname for the 369th Infantry, a segregated unit of African-American soldiers during World War I. 第369步兵的昵称,这是第一次世界大战期间隔离的非洲裔美国士兵部队。John "Blackjack" PershingGeneral who led the American army in Europe during World War I. 第一次世界大战期间在欧洲领导美军的将军。Henry Cabot LodgeRepublican senator who led opposition to the Treaty of Versailles fearing that it would force the United States to join wars that were not central to American interests. 导致反对《凡尔赛条约》的共和党参议员担心这会迫使美国加入对美国利益不重要的战争。IrreconcilablesRepublican senators during the debate over the Treaty of Versailles who refused to vote to approve the treaty no matter what changes were made. 共和党参议员在对《凡尔赛条约》进行辩论时,无论做出什么更改,都拒绝投票批准该条约。ReservationistsRepublican senators during the debate over the Treaty of Versailles who would consider voting to ratify the treaty if changes were made. 共和党参议员在对《凡尔赛条约》进行辩论时,将考虑投票表决批准该条约,如果做出修改。A. Mitchell PalmerAttorney general under President Wilson who conducted raids on suspected communists, anarchists and other foreigners during the First Red Scare. 威尔逊总统(Wilson)总统下任总检察长,在第一次红色恐慌期间对可疑的共产党员,无政府主义者和其他外国人进行了突袭。Sacco and VanzettiItalian immigrants and anarchists who were tried and convicted of murder. Some view their case as an example of anti-immigrant fear carried too far since the evidence against them was weak. 被审判谋杀罪名成立的意大利移民和无政府主义者。由于反对他们的证据薄弱,一些人将他们的案件视为反移民恐惧的一个例子。Ohio GangA group of President Harding's advisors. Their corruption causes the president a great deal of political trouble. 哈丁总统的顾问小组。他们的腐败给总统带来很多政治麻烦。Calvin CoolidgeRepublican president in the 1920s. He became president after the death of Harding and advocated pro-business policies. 1920年代共和党总统。哈丁死后,他成为总统,并倡导亲商业政策。Henry FordEntrepreneur who founded an automobile company and pioneered the use of the assembly line and famously paid his workers $5 per day. 创办汽车公司并率先使用流水线的企业家每天向他的工人支付5美元的酬劳。Charles LindberghAmerican pilot who was the first person to fly across the Atlantic Ocean non-stop. He became a national hero. 美国飞行员是第一个直飞大西洋的人。他成为民族英雄。The Lost GenerationGroup of American authors who wrote about disenchantment with consumerism and waste during the 1920s. They included Hemingway, Stein, and Fitzgerald. 一群美国作家,他们撰写了关于1920年代对消费主义和浪费的迷恋。他们包括海明威,斯坦和菲茨杰拉德。Booker T. WashingtonAfrican American educator in the late 1800s and early 1900s who led the Tuskegee Institute and argued that the best way for African Americans to advance their position in society was to learn useful skills rather than agitate for equality and justice. This was the Atlanta Compromise. 1800年代末期和1900年代初的非裔美国人教育家领导着图斯克吉学院,并认为非裔美国人提升其社会地位的最佳方法是学习有用的技能,而不是鼓吹平等和正义。这就是亚特兰大的妥协。W. E. B. Du BoisAfrican American author, political leader and intellectual who led the Niagara Movement and published The Crisis. He believed that African Americans should reject the Atlanta Compromise and fight for equality and justice. 领导尼亚加拉运动并出版《危机》的非裔美国人作家,政治领袖和知识分子。他认为,非洲裔美国人应拒绝亚特兰大的妥协,争取平等和正义。National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)Organization dedicated to promoting African American rights through the justice system. It was established in 1909 as part of the Niagara Movement. 致力于通过司法系统促进非裔美国人权利的组织。它成立于1909年,是尼亚加拉运动的一部分。Marcus GarveyJamaican-born entrepreneur and leader during the 1920s who led the Universal Negro Improvement Association. 牙买加出生的企业家和领导者,于1920年代领导普遍黑人改善协会。United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA)Organization founded by Marcus Garvey that encourage cooperation among all African people and people of African descent in the world. They also supported the independence movement in Jamaica. 由马库斯·加维(Marcus Garvey)创立的组织,旨在鼓励所有非洲人民和世界上非洲裔人之间的合作。他们还支持牙买加的独立运动。Ku Klux Klan (KKK)Racist organization based in the South that terrorized African Americans after the Civil War and helped establish the system of Jim Crow. They were also anti-immigrant, anti-Catholic and anti-Semitic. The organization experienced a revival in the 1920s and again during the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. 南部的种族主义组织在内战后对非裔美国人进行了恐怖袭击,并帮助建立了吉姆·克罗(Jim Crow)的体系。他们也是反移民,反天主教和反犹太人。该组织在1920年代经历了复兴,并在1960年代的民权运动中再次经历了复兴。ModernistsPeople who embrace science and changes as positive influences on society. In the 1920s they were concentrated in cities. 接受科学和变化对社会产生积极影响的人们。在1920年代,他们集中在城市。TraditionalistsPeople who rejected changes and embraced traditional values, especially Christianity instead of science. In the 1920s they were concentrated in rural areas and the South. 拒绝变革并拥护传统价值观,尤其是基督教而不是科学的人们。在1920年代,他们主要集中在农村地区和南部地区。FundamentalistsPeople who embraced the Bible and traditional Christian teachings and rejected scientific theories that contradict the Bible. Rural areas and the Bible Belt in the South are the heart of this thinking. 拥护圣经和传统基督教教义并拒绝与圣经矛盾的科学理论的人。农村地区和南部的圣经带是这一思想的核心。American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)Organization that provides lawyers to defend people they believe have had their basic rights violated. For example, they defend freedom of speech cases and in the 1920s, helped defend John Scopes. 为律师提供辩护的组织,他们认为自己的基本权利受到侵犯。例如,他们捍卫言论自由案件,并在1920年代帮助捍卫约翰·Scopes。William Jennings BryanFormer populist and democratic presidential candidate who became the primary champion of traditionalist and fundamentalists in the 1920s. He promoted laws such as the Butler Act and led the prosecution at the Scopes Trial. 前民粹和民主总统候选人在1920年代成为传统主义者和原教旨主义者的主要冠军。他提倡诸如巴特勒法案之类的法律,并在Scopes Trial案中领导了起诉。Clarence DarrowFamous attorney in the 1920s who rejected traditionalism as an encroachment on individual freedom of belief and led the defense of John Scopes. 1920年代著名的律师,他拒绝将传统主义视为对个人信仰自由的侵犯,并领导了约翰·Scopes的辩护。BootleggersPeople who imported illegal alcohol during prohibition. 禁止期间进口非法酒精的人。Al CaponeNicknamed "Scarface," he was the most famous gangster during the era of prohibition. He ran the illegal alcohol operation in Chicago and although was renowned for violence, eventually went to jail for tax evasion. 他被昵称为" Scarface",是禁令时代最著名的黑帮。他在芝加哥经营非法酒精经营活动,尽管以暴力闻名,但最终因逃税而入狱。John Maynard KeynesBritish economist who proposed the idea that in times of economic recession or depression the government must borrow and spend in order to jump start economic activity. His ideas formed the justification for the New Deal and later government programs such as President Obama's stimulus. 英国经济学家提出了这样的想法,即在经济衰退或萧条时期,政府必须借钱并花钱才能启动经济活动。他的想法为新政和后来的政府计划(如奥巴马总统的刺激计划)辩护。Federal Reserve Board (Fed)Independent government agency that is responsible for managing the overall economy by serving as the lender of last resort for the nation's banks. 独立政府机构,是国家银行的最后贷款人,负责管理整体经济。OkiesFamilies of farmers who fled the Dust Bowl during the Great Depression. Many went to California. 大萧条时期逃离沙尘暴的农民家庭。许多人去了加利福尼亚。Bonus ArmyGroup of World War I veterans who travelled to Washington, DC during the Great Depression where the set up a temporary camp. They were demanding early payment of a bonus promised to them by congress, but were eventually evicted forcibly by the army. 第一次世界大战的老兵小组,在大萧条时期前往华盛顿特区,在那里建立了一个临时营地。他们要求尽早支付国会许诺给他们的奖金,但最终被军队强行驱逐。HobosHomeless people who rode freight trains during the Great Depression. 大萧条期间乘坐货运列车的无家可归者。Franklin Delano RooseveltAmerican president first elected during the Great Depression. He promised a New Deal and went on to be elected a total of four times. He led the nation through most of World War II. 美国总统在大萧条时期首次当选。他许诺了一项新政,随后总共当选了四次。他带领国家度过了第二次世界大战的大部分时间。Brain TrustNickname for the group of advisors Franklin Roosevelt assembled to help solve the Great Depression. Many had come from universities, thus giving rise to the nickname. 富兰克林·罗斯福(Franklin Roosevelt)顾问组的昵称聚集在一起,以帮助解决大萧条。许多人来自大学,因此起了绰号。Frances PerkinsSecretary of Labor during the New Deal. She was the first woman to hold a cabinet position and was responsible for creating and implementing Social Security. 新政期间的劳工部长。她是第一位担任内阁职位的妇女,负责创建和实施社会保障。Robert TaftRepublican Senator during the 1930s who opposed the New Deal. He believed the New Deal was giving too much power to the government and programs designed to help the needy would eventually lead to a reduction in people's work ethic and entrepreneurial spirit. 1930年代反对新政的共和党参议员。他认为,新政赋予政府过多权力,旨在帮助有需要者的计划最终将导致人们的职业道德和企业家精神下降。Huey "Kingfish" LongSenator from Louisiana during the 1930s who argued that the government should take money from the rich to redistribute to the poor. He called his idea Share Our Wealth. He may have run against Roosevelt for president except that he was assassinated in 1935. 1930年代来自路易斯安那州的参议员认为政府应该从富人那里获得金钱,以重新分配给穷人。他称自己的想法为"分享我们的财富"。他可能曾与罗斯福竞选总统,但他于1935年被暗杀。Black CabinetNickname for a group of African American advisors to President Franklin Roosevelt. They included Dr. Robert Weaver and Mary McLeod Bethune. 富兰克林·罗斯福总统的一组非洲裔美国顾问的绰号。他们包括Robert Weaver博士和Mary McLeod Bethune。Eleanor RooseveltWife of President Franklin Roosevelt. She was an important spokesperson for his ideas and was often able to make people feel that she personally cared about them. She championed the concerns of women, minorities and the poor. Later in life she worked to promote human rights with the United Nations. 富兰克林·罗斯福总统的妻子。她是他的思想的重要代言人,常常使人们感到她个人关心它们。她主张妇女,少数民族和穷人的关切。在生活的后期,她与联合国一起致力于促进人权。America First CommitteeGroup that included many prominent Americans in the 1930s which advocated for isolationism. ~ 包括1930年代提倡孤立主义的许多杰出美国人的组织。Dwight EisenhowerSupreme allied commander in Europe during World War II. He later became president during the 1950s. ~ 第二次世界大战期间在欧洲的最高盟军司令。他后来在1950年代担任总统。Harry TrumanAmerican president at the end of World War II. He became president in 1945 when Roosevelt died and made the decision to use the atomic bomb. ~ 第二次世界大战结束时的美国总统。 1945年罗斯福去世并决定使用原子弹时,他成为总统。Robert OppenheimerScientist who led the Manhattan Project. He is remembered as the Father of the Nuclear Bomb. ~ 领导曼哈顿计划的科学家。人们记得他是核弹之父。Rosie the RiveterCharacter who represented all the working women during World War II. In the most famous image of her, she declares "We Can Do It!" ~ 在第二次世界大战期间代表所有职业妇女的角色。在她最著名的形象中,她宣称"我们能做到!"A. Philip RandolphAfrican American leader of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters union. He convinced President Franklin Roosevelt to issue Executive Order 8802 to end discrimination in industries that fulfilled government contracts. ~ 睡车搬运工兄弟会的非裔美国人领导人。他说服总统富兰克林·罗斯福(Franklin Roosevelt)发布8802号行政命令,以结束在履行政府合同的行业中的歧视。Tuskegee AirmenUnit of African American fighter pilots during World War II. ~ 第二次世界大战期间的非洲裔美国战斗机飞行员部队。442nd Regimental Combat TeamArmy unit made up of Japanese Americans during World War II. They served with distinction despite the internment of their family members back home and are the most decorated military unit in American history. ~ 第二次世界大战期间由日裔美国人组成的陆军部队。尽管他们的家人被遣返国内,他们还是表现出色,并且是美国历史上装饰最丰富的军事单位。