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Biology Chapter 12: DNA and RNA
Key words of Chapter 12 of the 2004 edition of Prentice Hall 's Biology textbook. Also includes some information from Chapters 13 and 14.
Terms in this set (114)
A long molecule made up of nucleotides that stores and transmits the genetic information from one generation of an organism to the next. Double stranded.
Consists of DNA bound to protein in nucleus. When a cell divides the chromatin condense to form chromosomes
monomer of DNA. Made up of three basic components: 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base (Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine. In RNA Uracil replaces Thymine)
A group of compounds that include Adenine and Guanine. Have two rings in their structures
A group of compounds that include Cytosine and Thymine. Have one ring in their structure
Adenine pairs with Thymine and Guanine pairs with Cytosine. He discovered that the ratio between the pairs were almost the exact same
structure of DNA, has two DNA strands wound around eachother. The two strands are held together by hydrogen bonds that formed in between bases
Adenine can only pair with Thymine and Cytosine can only pair with Guanine. Hydrogen bonds form between the pairs to hold the double helix together. It also directs replication
Proteins that DNA coils around
The DNA and histone molecules form a beadlike structure called a
Monomer of proteins
During this process, the DNA molecule separates into two strands, then produces two new complementary strands. Each strand of the double helix of DNA serves as a template, or model, for the new strand.
enzyme that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule, which is a polymer. It also proofreads each new DNA strand, helping to maximize the odds that each molecule is a perfect copy of the original DNA.
coded DNA instructions that control the production of proteins within the cell.
Contains the genetic code for making proteins. Single stranded.
Serve as messengers from DNA in nucleus to the rest of the cell
Helps the ribosome make proteins
Transfers an amino acid to the ribosome
The process in which RNA is made. RNA polymerase separates a DNA strand and uses it as a template with which to make a complimentary RNA strand. Copies DNA to make a strand of RNA. Similar to replication.
Regions on the DNA that signal the RNA polymerase to start copying at that point on the chain
Three consecutive nucleotides that specify a single amino acid that is to be added to the polypeptide (protein) located on the mRNA
The process in which proteins are made. mRNA enters a ribosome and provides the code for which amino acids should be put together. tRNA brings the amino acid to the ribosome so it can form a polypeptide
Many amino acids held together by peptide bonds
Complimentary bases on a tRNA to match the mRNA codon
Changes in the nucleotides
A gene mutation that only changes a single point on the DNA sequence
Insertion (point mutation)
when one nucleotide is added
Deletion (chromosomal and point mutation)
when one nucleotide is taken out
Substitution (point mutation)
when one nucleotide is switched with a different nucleotide
Occurs after an insertion or deletion; all codons are changed to accommodate the extra/one less nucleotide. Can alter protein so much that it is unable to perform its function
Involve changes in the number or structure of chromosomes. Mutations may change the locations of genes on chromosomes, and may even change the number of copies of some genes. Changes in whole chromosomes.
Duplication (chromosomal mutation)
When a chromosome produces extra copies of parts of the chromosome
Inversion (chromosomal mutation)
When a part of the chromosome reverses direction
When one part of the chromosome breaks of and transfers to another chromosome
When an organism has extra sets of chromosomes
Any change in an organism that alters its general character and mode of life.
An enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides
A kind of virus that infects bacteria. "bacteria eater"
A point mutation in which a single nucleotide is changed, resulting in a different codon that codes for a different amino acid
A point mutation that results in a premature stop codon
An enzyme that repairs places where the DNA is broken
A strand of DNA or RNA that has complementary bases to another strand of DNA or RNA. For instance, during DNA replication, the new strand that is formed is a complementary strand. (Complementary bases: A-T, C-G)
The enzyme that separates and copies the DNA strand to make a complementary RNA strand. Bonds the nucleotides together.
The enzyme that splits the two strands for DNA replication
DNA replication order
1. Helicase unzips the double helix
2. DNA polymerase uses one strand to copy the information to produce another complementary strand
3. DNA polymerase connects individual nucleotides to their corresponding bases to connect the DNA molecule
4. DNA polymerase proof-reads the DNA
1. RNA polymerase splits a DNA double helix at a point called a promoter (AUG)
2. RNA polymerase uses one strand as a template to make a complementary mRNA strand
1. An mRNA molecule in the cytoplasm attaches to a ribosome
2. The proper amino acid is brought into the ribosome by a tRNA (proper=tRNA that matches the codon on the mRNA)
3. In the ribosome connects the amino acids from the tRNA to each other, using rRNA. Ribosome forms a peptide bond between the amino acids and breaks the bond that had held the amino acid to the tRNA. It continues this until it reaches a stop codon, where the polypeptide (or protein) and mRNA is released
Enzymes that cut DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides
DNA molecules that are produced by combining DNA from different sources
Making changes directly to the DNA molecule
A member of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell
There are four
Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine
Nitrogen containing Bases
What is the only difference in the four nucleotides?
Base pairing rules
What rules show how nucleotides always par up in DNA?
phosphate group, a deoxyribose sugar, a nitrogen containing base
What are the three parts of a nucleotide?
What is connected to covalent bonds?
What is connected to hydrogen bonds?
DNA replication copies the genetic information of a cell.
Dna Replication key concept
A single strand of DNA
What serves as a new template for a new strand of DNA?
during the S (synthesis) stage of the cell cycle (interphase)
When is DNA replicated?
each body cell
Which cells gets a complete set of identical DNA?
What caries out the process of DNA replication?
Enzymes and other proteins
what does the actual work of replication?
hydrogen bonds with the template strand
Free floating nucleotides form what with what?
DNA polymerase enzymes
What bonds the nucleotides together to form the double helix
Semi conservative because it uses one half of the dan molecule as a template for another. Half old half old.
DNA replication is Not conservative, conservative or Semi conservative?
DNA replication starts in many points in eukaryotic chromosomes
DNA replication starts at how many points in what?
What finds and corrects errors
Key concept of RNA transcription
Transcription converts a gene into a single stranded RNA molecule.
The central dogma
What states that information flows in one direction from DNA to RNA to proteins.
Replication, transcription and, translation
What are the three processes of the central dogma?
RNA because DNA is too large to exit the nucleus.
What is the link between DNA and proteins and why?
Ribose, uracil, single stranded, ability to leave the nucleus.
How does RNA differ from DNA?
mRNA message that will be translated to form a protein, rRNA assembles amino acids in the correct order, tRNA transfers amino acids from the cytoplasm to a ribosome.
What are the types of RNA?
Transcription is catalyzed by what?
what does RNA polymerase and other proteins form?
Enzymes do what to a molecule of DNA at a specific gene?
One strand of DNA
What do free floating nucleotides pair with?
In transcribing the gene it is single stranded mRNA that detaches
What detaches from DNA?
both involve complex enzymes and complementary base pairing.
What are similarities between Transcription and Replication?
Replication copies DNA; transcription copies a gene.
Replication makes one copy; transcription can make many copies.
What are differences between Transcription and Replication?
Amino acids are coded by mRNA base sequences
What is the key concept of RNA translation?
translation converts mRNA and turns them into polypeptides.
Translation does what to mRNA messages and turns them into what?
bond between amino acids
a sequence of 3 nucleotides that code for an amino acid
What is a codon?
64 mRNA codons
How many different mRNA codons are there?
20 amino acids
how many amino acids?
What matches each codon to its amino acid or function?
How many stop codons?
1 and it is met
how many start and what does it code for?
What is set of 3 nucleotides that is complementary to an mRNA codon?
what is an anti codon carried by?
How many subunits do Ribosomes have?
In which subunit does it have 3 binding sites for tRNA?
Which subunit binds to mRNA?
what holds together the joining of a anticodon and the first codon?
What helps form a polypeptide bond between the amino acids?
The ribosome pulls what strand the length of one codon?
Exits the ribosome
What does an empty tRNA molecule do?
releases the protein and disassembles
once the stop codon is reaches what happens to the ribosome and protein?
Mutations are changes in DNA that may be good bod or have no effect
Key concept of mutations
replication errors, Mutagens (uv ray and chemicals).
Errors in Replication and transcription, cell division, or external agents.
What can cause a mutation?
By changing the sequence of bases within a gene in a sperm or egg cell.
How does a mutation affect the reproductive cels an organism?
cause the genetic makeup of the offspring to change.
what can changing the sequence of bases within a gene in a sperm or egg cell do?
Positive and negative if negative sometimes the embryo may not survive. It can also cause cancer.
Mutations have what affect?
point mutation and it can change the entire structure of a protein.
What is the change in a single base pair called?
frame shift shifts the codons by one base pair and this alters nearly every amino acid in the protein.
What is the insertion or deletion of a single base in the DNA sequence called?
Chromosomal mutations and they may occur during crossing over. They affect many genes, gene duplication is a resulting factor of this. Common in plants and the zygote usually dies. Translocation results from the exchange of DNA segments between different chromosomes.
What are the structural changes in the chromosomes?
What does a mutation possibly affect?
a premature stop codon, change the shape or the active site, gene regulation.
What could mutation cause?
any affect on the phenotype, mutations could be silent, folding ir the active site.
What could mutation not cause?
What do mutation not affect in body cells ?
The nucleic acid sequence in the DNA, or RNA transcript following genetic splicing.The protein-coding region in the DNA.
A noncoding segment in a length of DNA that interrupts a gene-coding sequence or nontranslated sequence, the corresponding segment being removed from the RNA copy before transcription.
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