Manifest Destiny
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a notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific. encouraged the idea of everything kinda being part of "God's Plan" and everything happens for a reason. 4 main influences: romantic nationalism makes america feel invincible. hunger for land, we want to expand especially since we secured oregon. 2nd GA idea that God is on our side and we need to expand and spread His love. technology advancement also made this possible. politics played a big role as politicians used this as a platform to form their politicies.
movement to the west is the Oregon Trail. US and Britain share Oregon and in 1827 negotiation between GB and US say either country could claim control of Oregon if they give a 1 year notice. 1841 pioneers head west, no govt to oversee them. there are issues when a wealthy guy buys a bunch of land and has all these assets and then dies because now these people in oregon need to try and figure out how to divide up the land without govt help. they meet and find a majority of settlers are from new york, so they agree to write a state constitution and follow some of the rules seen in NY. Britain comes in and is like wtf you cant attempt to be a state this is shared land you are not part of the US. two years later theres issues with wolves?? life is hard for americans in oregon and they need to have laws and a govt but GB is like "no!! stop trying to be a state!!" oregon is sick of this and threatens to become its own country in hopes either GB or the US will claim oregon fully. US claims oregon and GB leaves because theres no point fighting over oregon. President Polk claims oregon
some politicians are looking at overseas expansion. asia has always been of interest because oo spices! colored dyes! UK and Europe has claims to parts of asia but China was kinda hard to get into, they didn't like the west or any outsiders. GB finds a way to get them to fold by getting them all addicted to opium (mm, opium wars!) so they are forced to have relations with britain. US sends a diplomat to apologize for everything China has been going through with this opium crisis, and also hey um do you maybe want to trade with us? This is how we get our foot in the door with china, and the US sends thousands of christian missionaries to go and try to "help" the chinese addicted to drugs.
reclusive, they hate everybody but who is in their borders, we knocked on their door and they did not want to let us in. naval commander Matthew Perry goes over and kinda uses the navy to show off/as a threat, he pulls into harbor with his war ships in 1852 claiming he just wants to talk. he made a treaty with Japan to get our foot in the door with them, and this is the catalyst for Japan modernizing. the industrial revolution quickly gets them to modernize and industrialize and eventually, imperialism
1842. lumber jack wars in maine between US and French Canadian. Webster and Ashburton agree where the line between Maine and Canada is and we gave Britain extra land in the tip of Maine to be nice. in return, they give us a teeny bit of land in the midwest, but it actually ends up providing an astonishing amount of iron ore later on which is a catalyst for industrialization and even steel. poses the question of manifest destiny again, was this tiny bit of land given to us part of the fate of the US, or no??
the south wanted to expand to have larger plantations and grow more cotton. the US originally promised Spain we wouldn't touch Texas after the Florida Purchase Treaty. Mexico has a revolution and is no longer part of Spain, because the area of California-Texas is so desolate they welcome settlement in Texas. they hoped by offering free land they could get the Americans to convert to Catholicism and become Mexican citizens. they also dont want Americans to bring slaves. if the americans can do these three things, they get free land. one of the first people to take the offer is Steven Austin in 1823. he takes 300 families to what is now Houston, Texas. they are aware of the 3 conditions and choose to ignore them. in 1830 the mexican gov't freed all their slaves which puts pressure on the Texans. they go to Mexico city and protest and Mexico is pissed because like, wtf, we gave you free land and 3 very simple rules to follow, why are you protesting. the president of mexico Santa Anna is done with Texas and he sends agents to make them behave (similar to Red Coats occupying cities and keeping an eye on the US during the revolution). 1836 texans declare independence because they feel they are being harassed and they call themselves the "Lone Star Republic". they knew there would be a fight. Santa Anna had a decent army, and 6,000 mexican soldiers march on texas.
1836. Texans gather to fight back here. Davy Crockett is the leader of this. he's a war hawk pioneer veteran nationalist. the Alamo was originally created by the French in period 1 as a missionary to make people catholic. protected by a wall-like moat. 6,000 mexican soldiers take on 200 Texans. for the next 10 days the mexican army sits outside the alamo to play music and f with the texans and get them exhausted mentally, and then on the 13th night they attack. how it ends: almost everyone in the alamo is killed. Davy Crockett is captured. he is killed. the alamo did kill 1,200 soldiers. the texans carry on fighting because General Houston sees this death of 1,200 mexican soldiers as proof they can win this war, they believe it is destiny. Santa Anna is captured and held at gun point and forced to sign away Texas to the Texans, he returns home and Mexico doesn't see this signing away of land as legit, so Santa Anna nullifies the agreement. Texas contacts DC and congress and immediately asks to become a state, and congress is like woah wtf no. Texas is guaranteed to be a slave state and multiple people have issues with this, so the request is denies. congress doesnt see it being worth the fight.
multiple politicians debate what to do and they take so much time debating that Texas has to become its own country and Congress stops debating it. 1836 Lone Star Republic. they survive for 8 years as a country. Great Britain starts taking interest in Texas and offers to take them in, and thats when congress is like woahhh hang on wtf and reconsiders the offer of making Texas a state. President Tyler makes texas a state. there is a big issue of slavery in congress now. arguments that this is the catalyst for the civil war.
Third Partyby 1828 solidified two party system. realize if we dont want elections to go to house of rep there needs to be the 2 party system. whigs: american system. higher tariffs. fed govt funded projects. national bank. democrats dont support this. in 2 party system theres always a group that doesn't really fit in. after 1828 see regular third party in elections.national nominating conventionsofficial running candidates but the country is still regional. have to decide which candidate in a party is best to put forward to run. creating convention made it possible to be regional and agree on how to put best candidate forward. now the whigs are able to agree on a candidate and can actually run in the 20s and platformwith conventions came printed/written/documented platform. proof of what a candidate stood for so they can't change ideas halfway through. proposed by 3rd party.Van Burenone term, came after Jackson. "Little Magician" because he was going to somehow have to find a way to clean up Jackson's mess. democrat. jackson wanted him in. he proposed "Divorce Bill" to officially split the US govt from the bank. thinks banks should be left private and up to the states. set up independent treasury because he believed that it would create stability, but it was extremely controversial. steps toward a federal reserve.Election of 1840Harrison and Van Buren run as a whig and a democrat. Harrison 234 electoral votes Van Buren 60 but the popular vote is very close. Harrison chooses John Tyler as running mate and he is referred to as a "Whig in Sheep's Clothing" because he leans left/moderate. Harrison dies 1 month into his presidency, making Tyler president. his views dont lean the way of a whigs and the whigs hate him and kick him out of the party. he vetos the bank even though the whigs want it. referred to as the "President without a party". in 1844 the whigs put up Henry Clay to run for pres in an effort to fix the party. democrats put up James Polk, "young hickory", a lot like jackson. he uses manifest destiny heavily in this platform. he believed we had a mandate to expand. he wins the election of 1844.CaliforniaPolk fills all his promises on expansion to Oregon, Texas, and California territory. he sends a representative to offer Mexico money for the California territory. he sent troops to Louisiana and off the coast of Cali as he is preparing for there to be a fight when Mexico says no. Mexico refuses to even speak to our representatives. Polk orders Zachary Taylor to Texas to go toward what will be the border, the Rio Grande. he mobilized his men because he felt the mexicans were being hostile. John Freemont leads troops in california. this is a very over the top move of the US and its controversial. justifies manifest destiny. money to mobilization. they wouldnt take our offer, we mobilize war.Mexican American Wardebate over whether the border was in the Rio Grande or the Nuces River. US believed the border of Mexico and the US was the Rio Grande in Texas. April 22nd, 1846 American troops crossed Nuces River to march to the Rio Grande. Polk knew this would cause issues, there was a fight. 11 americans killed. debate over who shot first. Polk asked for a declaration of war. lots of debate, NE especially had issues because they saw that expansion into this territory would give a lot of power to slave states. NE wanted it added to the constitution that slavery could not expand into this western territory. during all this debate, California declares their independence as a country, just like Texas did. they did this to create a catalyst for the war so congress would make a decision.objective in the wartake the capital. mexico city. polk focuses on taking Santa Fe which is a very developed city. US troops pull up and mexico quickly surrenders santa fe. september 1847 US is in mexico city getting that W for the US. manifest destiny plastered all over this victory. Treaty of Guadalupe secures the west coast, also seen as manifest destiny. we wanted to make it clear to the world that we won. secured CA, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and portions of Utah. polk fulfilled his platform. to prove we're not "imperialistic" and to make the US feel better about its actions we paid $15 million for the land and to be diplomatic the US waived Mexico's debts to us.effects of the war13,000 fatalities. most didn't die in combat, they died of diseases along the journey. this becomes a training ground for combat in the civil war. 2 men who become generals in the civil war Lee + Grant. Freemont + Tyler also get leadership and presidency because of their success in this war. the war deteriorates relationship with latin america, they are upset because the monroe doctrine said we were supposed to protect them but we just attacked them. argued to be the first battle of the civil war.democratscreated by Jackson. platform: liberty of the individual. always looking for that language of protection in the constitution. highly against privileged people having a way to manipulate their way into gov't with money or connections. believed in states rights, Jefferson believed peoples voices are heard closer to home w state govt. believed fed govt should have minimal involvement in economic and social affairs. class: working class, "the common man party"whigsterm comes from GB. embodiment of the american system. wanted unity. wanted everyone in the nation to work together. they wanted to get rid of slavery, although they'd never say it, because they hate the divide it caused in the US. wanted fed govt to be there to create unity. disliked politicians that had self interest in mind and only supported their state rather than the whole nation, basically a lack of civic virtue. pro tariff pro BUS pro public education to help grow civic virtue. supported prohibition. class: people who tended to be better off financially.Popular Sovereigntythrown around to find a solution to the issues in the new territory. means letting people in a given territory determine what they're going to do, in this case, the issue is slavery. let the people vote and have a say, no more clear divide. politicians wonder if this will work.Election of 1848popular sovereignty is on the mind and platform of some politicians. Polk was sick and couldn't run again. in his place General Cass is nominated to run. fought in 1812. old. thought he was better than most. democrats wanted him silent on the issue of slavery. if he doesn't bring it up, it wont cause issues. he saw popular sovereignty as a good thing and a way to keep slavery alive. whigs put up Zachary Taylor. he had no credentials in office, he was just a war hero. avoids commenting on slavery, yet he's from Louisiana and he's a plantation owner (with slaves). third party in this election. Free Soilers. popularity grows quickly. democrats and whigs are silent on slavery but the free soilers built their whole platform on it. they don't want slavery in the new territories but they aren't necessarily abolitionists. 2nd platform: federal aid for internal improvements. they know the federal gov't needs to expand infrastructure into the new land. they proposed free land and homesteads to get the new land established. they're the bottom of the social hierarchy, southerners and city dwellers. they just want a chance to own something and make something of themselves. abolitionists are the only ones saying no to slavery and the free soilers are the only ones trying to stop it, later on when lincoln runs for office he tries to get the free soilers on his side. a combo of whigs and free soilers later become the republican party.california gold rushsee annotations. James Marshall, John Sutter, and Sam Brannan catalyst for the rush. California asking for statehood becomes known as the "sitting on the lid" analogy. US has been sitting on this slavery "boiling pot" and california pops the lid off it. when they apply for statehood they go in wanting to be a free state which caused issues.Sectional Balance and the Underground Railroaduntil CA applies for statehood, the south isnt doing bad politically. president Taylor is from the south. cabinet is mostly southerners. supreme court is mostly southerners. the senate is equal because the balance has been kept. majority north in house of rep. if CA comes in the senate and house is disrupted and becomes mostly free states. because of the gag order on congress, there weren't any worries about slavery changing in the current states. extension is a concern. the south knows they need to start causing issues because if California gets to be a free state it will start a trend of free states and ruin the balance completely.Issues the south fearstexas is a weird shape which causes arguments. texans argue when they took texas thats what the claim was. claim land went to 42 latitude. texas wanted to have civil war over santa fe, which is the capitol of what will be new mexico. south wants texas to have all this land because it'll mean more slave state representation. area around DC causing issues. north argued slavery shouldnt exist around the capitol to be cautral and the south argued. the north wanted 10 miles radius around DC to be free. biggest gripe which they ignored until now: the underground railroad.the underground railroadsouth argued the north has to return property (slaves to the south). Harriet Tubman created railroad, the goal was to get to canada. when she escaped she carefully memorized the safe route out. she led the escape route 19 times so other people could make the journey safely and pass on the route. some houses in norwich, CT were built specifically to be safe houses for the railroad. back in 1793 the fugitive slave law passed just before the slave trade was abolished and it was put in place that the north had to return slaves. the north was now ignoring this act. frederick douglas had a platform, and this outraged the south because he was an escaped slave with a political platform. he had to go into hiding because the south wanted to find him and return him to whoever he belonged to. the south argued the north was going against the constitution because property is protected by law. old congressmen calhoun, clay, and webster have one last go at trying to find compromise because they see the country will fall apart without it.senatorial giants1844 some southern congressmen think succession is the only answer. clay is sick and dying. by 1852 he dies of tuberculosis. calhoun is hanging on by threads. webster is dyin of liver failure. even though they're all halfway to deaths door, they are still trying to help the country the way they see fit.The Compromise of 1850its clear that Taylor doesn't want the south to compromise, he wants the north to. he vetos pro-north legislature. discussing the compromise took months and during this time Taylor dies. VP Millard Filmore is sworn in. he is more of a Whig than Taylor, so he believes that once a good, equal compromise is made, he will sign it.North state California, Texas loses stove-pipe shaped land for $10 million, and the purchase/taking of slaves from Africa ends, but the current US slaves remain.South Gets...popular sovereignty in the West (a chance for more slave states) and a stronger fugitive slave law where the North will uphold returning slaves. North established a due process, official review over determining whether a slave should be free or not. this was very corrupt, with the "judges" gaining $10 for every slave they claimed escaped and $5 for every slave they set free. Northern slave hunters also get paid by the gov't to search for the Underground Railroad, and those found helping escaped slaves were found guilty of theft.Personal Liberty Lawsindividuals start taking a stand specifically over the fugitive slave act over unjust laws. personal decisions were made to not follow this unjust law.The Election of 1852Whig is put up General Scott hero in Mexican American war. Whigs tend to pick candidates with platform and also southern to get southern votes. doesn't have political experience but he has experience leading. democrats put up Franklin Pierce. no political experience, but nobody is hating on him. neither put slavery on their platform. free soiler also runs and gets 5% of vote. Pierce wins electoral votes. popular vote is close. he doesn't do anything to fix anything so issues keep escalating. Whigs split over this election because half of them don't like General Scott.Expansion South of the Borderstart seeing southerners nervous because West is starting to become free states. some Americans concerned Britain is getting involved in our side of the world. we know they're looking for more land. we pass treaty with Britain to stay peaceful.Clayton-Bulwer Treatyif America or Britain have interest in Central or South America they'd both have to agree on the terms. becomes problematic in Panama Canal.Nicaraguasummer 1856 southern William Walker dedicated to expanding south tried to go Aaron Burr on 'em and tried to attack Nicaragua. he was able to take over and he made himself the president and made slavery legal. Pierce was like wtf we can't annex you into a state. while Walker is waiting to make Nicaragua a state the Nicaraguans overthrow him and kill him.Ostend ManifestoCuba. controlled by spain in 1850s and south sees this as possible land. southerners on ships (pirates) go and harass spain/cuba on the water. failing miserably. 1854 cuba captures an American ship. south wants to call for war because of this. Pierce advocates for a meeting with American representatives, France and Spain on how to move forward. Meet in Ostend, Belgium. Decide the US can purchase Cuba for $120 million and if Spain goes back to leaders and they don't accept the offer US can start war. Free Soilers blow this up back at home because it shows how nuts the south is acting trying to get us to go to war over cuba. pierce shuts it down. also sets us up with later relations and issues with cuba that are even happening in modern times.Gadsden Purchaselast piece we add to continental US. railroad starting to be discussed. trying to figure out where it will go and who will actually house it. north and south both proposing paths. every path the north suggested was geographically hard and it cost a lot. the south ideas were cheaper and easier but it required that little piece of land out west below california. James Gadsden talks with Mexico and buys that little piece of land for $10 million. now the path for the railroad was available.Kansas-Nebraska ActKansas and Nebraska became two territories. Steven Douglas politician from Illinois wanted railroad in the north so he has to figure out how to convince congress. Kansas and Nebraska supposed to be free because they're above the Missouri compromise, but Douglas knows the south is desperate for land. he proposes: Kansas and Nebraska go up for popular sovereignty so the railroad can go through the North. to do this, Missouri Compromise would have to be dissolved. enough northerners saw value in railroad and in 1856 the act passes. argued this is when Congress legislated the civil war.Brooks and Sumnerboth Congressmen May 1856 start beefing, shows violence is erupting in the statehouse. Brooks stands up and wants to duel. Sumner is like "I'm a gentleman, I don't duel, bro" and Brooks is like "gentlemen duel, bro" and then they argue over who is the better statesman. Brooks beats him with his cane instead. Sumner is severely injured. Brooks expelled from Congress but he gets reelected. significance: there is absolutely no compromise anymore or even an attemptDred Scott DecisionMarch 1857 supreme court gave decision on a case that changed everything. Dred Scott was a slave, he sued for his freedom because he had been taken by his owner from a slave state to a free state and then back to a slave state. he argued because he had been in a free state, he should have been freed. the south wanted it to go to the court because the court was mostly south and it would rule in their favor. court ruled he had no business in court because he wasn't a citizen. also ruled Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional and that every constitution negate and any state could be a slave state. constitution read in favor of the south.Constitutional??north losing it. cant figure out what the south is interpreting in the constitution to justify what they're doing. "slavery" isn't used as a word in the 3/5 compromise. ripping documents apart to try and interpret things back in their favorElection 1856Pierce sees country falling apart and doesn't run for a second term. democrats put up James Buchanan. lots of experience in politics. Whigs split party and become republicans. nominate John Freemont he's the first candidate who is catholic and that causes issues. he's not really a practicing catholic but people labeled him as so. the third party is the know nothings who are anti immigrant. resurgence in racism against foreigners. Buchanan wins. it is determined that if Freemont had come into office the civil war would have started 4 years earlier. gives Lincoln time to mature politically.Harriet Beecher Stowewomen's rights. stopped advocating for women's rights to focus on the civil war. wrote "Uncle Tom's Cabin" about the home and slavery and separating slave families. read for entertainment, and gets people on board for abolition as it makes them feel empathy towards the slaves. 2nd best seller at the time below the Bible. sold worldwide, even in Europe, and now the world is being exposed to how terrible things are in the US. majority of British workers disgusted and this makes it hard for GB to take the side of the south.Hinton Helper"The Impending Crisis" talked about how slavery degraded the south and ruined the economic structure. the south banned the book, breaking the first amendment, but the north picked it up and printed it and it got popular.Bleeding KansasKansas kinda ends up in territory civil war. trying to encourage migration. more northerners means a free state. more southerners means a slave state. unspoken idea that to keep the balance kansas and nebraska should just split and one be slave one be free. Harriet Beecher Stowe's brother in CT started New England Immigration Aid to encourage people in NE to immigrate to Kansas. "aid" was just Beecher's Bible, which was a cover up to give people guns. the south figured it out and felt the north was trying to steal kansas. when it came time for the vote in kansas the southerners encouraged people in Missouri to come into Kansas and pretend to be residents and vote. the vote went in favor of the south but the northerners found it to be illegitimate because of voting fraud. the south set up the capitol in kansas as Lecompton. the north made theirs Topeaka. they both claim each other to be illegitimate and DC is watching Kansas go into this fighting knowing its going to happen to the USLecompton Constitution1857. sent to washington because the south believed it was the capitol. steven douglas, who believed in popular sovereignty, denied it because the votes weren't legit and he knew if it was approved it would case so many issues. kansas isn't even a state when the US civil war began.John Brown's Raidfrom CT. decided to take a gang to rebute for the burning of this town by Topeaka. found 5 southerners and murdered them and spread their bodies around this river and then they fled Kansas. showed how violent things had gotten. he takes abolition to the next level in 1859 in Virginia when he attacked the federal arsenal (weapons) with a gang of whites and blacks. there have been slave revolts but never a revolt of this nature lead by a white man, this attack on the US government is sometimes seen as the first terrorist attack. he succeeded in getting the arsenal, but the marines were sent in to stop the raid. Robert E Lee stopped in. he is captured, tried, and hanged publicly. the south is happy with how the federal government handled things.Illinois Senate Racethis race would have gone unnoticed but Lincoln went up against Steven Douglas and it gave him attention. how he decided to run for president. Lincoln was artful, he knew he could challenge people, and he knew if he challenged Douglas to a debate he could make him look stupid. tour of debates. Free Port, Illinois. Lincoln poses question that unsettles Douglas: "If the people of a territory voted slavery down, which side would you support? The people, or the supreme court?" Lincoln morally did not support slavery. he didn't want to say that but he wanted to knock Douglas off his pedestal. Douglas sided with the people. Lincoln got a name for himself from this debate. Lincoln lost the senate race but he realized he wanted to be president. Douglas lost the respect of the south, so when he runs for president, the south remembers.Election of 1860Whigs are gone, republicans now in. Democrats splitting, the Northern Democrats wanted Steven Douglas. Southern Democrats wanted Becken Ridge up and he had a stance on slavery. he was pro slavery. no more ignoring it. republicans put up Lincoln. Lincoln didn't want to announce he's anti slavery because he didn't want to lose certain groups of people. he said in his platform instead that there would be no expansion of slavery into new territory. free soiler idea. the south doesn't even put his name on the ballot. on his platform he wants the mill owners to vote for him, so he says he'll put a higher tariff. promises rights to immigrants. more railroads for the west. promises homestead act for farmers: free land for anyone who can prove they'll better the land. Lincoln receives 40% of popular vote but he wins the electoral college without winning a singular southern vote. south carolina declares if this goes through they will separate. in December, only a few weeks after the election, south carolina became a confederacy. 6 other states joined them. they form the confederate united states. deep south in slavery. capitol is in Montgomery, Alabama, but it later gets moved to Richmond, Virginia. Buchannan has no response during the last 5 months of his presidency. the situation gets worse during this time, the south gets control of almost all arsenals, and the south hopes the north decides to let them separate peacefully like calhoun asked. lincol doesn't want that to happen. he wants a union.inaugurationMarch 4th, 1861 Lincoln is sworn in. "perfect setting" as the federal building was being rebuilt behind him as he took the oath. seemed fitting. addresses in his speech that dividing the nation is impossible. says it goes against democracy and what we represent. one of his biggest points is that Europe was expecting the US to fail, and that we shouldn't give them that satisfaction.Fort SumterLincoln wants to talk things out. final federal fort. federal troops were still in it but the confederacy had surrounded it. he told them to sit and wait. he sent supplies but he didnt want to send munitions and start a war. when supplies showed up the south attacked. after a day the men inside surrendered the fort and left. Lincoln knew he had no choice but to intervene."Call to Arms"75,000 volunteers. best generals were already in the south. Lincoln needed 4 months. naval blockade around south so no resources from Europe. blockade stands for 5 years. when Lincoln does this 4 more states join the confederacy: VA, TN NC, and Arkansas. the capitol is moved to Virginia to be closer to DC.Border Statesthose who felt were a mix and felt they were stuck in the middle. Maryland, Kentucky, Delaware, and Missouri. they didn't want to choose a side. Lincoln tiptoed around them. takes maryland by marshall law because the capitol was there and he doesn't want the confederacy near the union capitol.Brother vs Brotherpeople in TN mad about leaving union, some aren't. 1000s of tennesseans join the union. in lots of families there is one brother fighting for the union and another fighting for the confederacy. TN is the "volunteer state" because of this war. also because of this Virginia splits and becomes Virginia and West Virginia, WV applies for statehood to be a part of the union because they did not want to be in the confederacy.balances of forcessouth advantage: leadership. they have the best generals in the country. Robert E Lee is one, but he was on the fence to begin with. Stonewall Jackson. they also have geography on their side. fighting happens mostly on their land but they're good at working in the heat of the summer. The South only has to defend, the other side had to be strategic and attack. north advantage: resources. iron to make munitions. mills to male the things we needed. cotton was a problem but the west helped. population helped. the population from the north to south was 3 to 1 so we could afford to lose more men. almost all the railroad at the time was in the north, we also had almost the whole navy. north had 3 times more money.southern supportthe south thought GB would help but the British population was against helping because of media like Uncle Tom's Cabin which made them all anti slavery. GB also didn't really need the cotton from the south anymore, they had figured out how to grow it in India and they were starting to trade with Egypt for cotton.Lincoln vs DavisLincoln thought the war would be a 4 month war, it ended up being over 4 years. Davis is the president of the confederacy. a confederacy is not meant to have a strong leader, so his role was designed to not have much power. he couldn't enforce strategy or call troops, the military was running itself. he still worked hard to do good things for the confederacy. he didn't really see the value in war. he didn't see his people for who they were. Lincoln was put in charge of a government that already existed and had rules and he took everything that happened in the war to heart. one of his biggest faults. the war went on and he carried the numbers and guilt. he often wrote letters himself to thank mothers of fallen soldiers because he felt they gave their sons for the country. good thing: he had the patriotism of the founding fathers. he wanted to protect what they worked so hard to build.Wartime Libertiesused his executive powers. when he took office Congress was on yearly recess. the war starts and he doesn't have anyone to ask for permission so he does what he needs to do. in times of war Congress is usually in support of whatever the executive wants. he uses a lot of money to build army without asking. sent $2 million to three private citizens for military purposes. companies asked to produce war goods. threw people in prison for no reason. took Marshall law of Maryland in defense of the capitol. Congress returns in July and is like "ok bro, whatever you need to do". at this time with Congress, almost everyine was either north or republican because eevryone else left. passes all the other unrelated stuff on his platform while he's at it, however, he doesn't outlaw slavery. Lincoln knows if he outlaws slavery now the south will neber come back. the south would have fought until everyone was dead. Lincoln said the war was about rebellion. "Our popular government has been called an experiment" he knows the world has been waiting for us to fail.Volunteers and the DraftLincoln wanted volunteer patriots, not a draft. people did volunteer when the war started but once people were dying and losing limbs there were no more volunteers. when Congress came back from Hiatus a draft was necessary. Congress also needed money, so if a family could pay $300 their boys wouldn't be drafted. start having draft riots. 1863 the first draft riot in the US History broke out. "a rich man's war but a poor man's fight" Lincoln attested to 90% of army being volunteered. debatable.Economic Stressors of Warbond sales finance the war. people who bought their kids out of draft feel bad and start supporting funds. some funds during war because of inflation. Lincoln gets national bank back and with treasury he printed $450 million that was backed by gold. this caused inflation. money only worth something if its represented by something. the south is a financial mess. 70-80% inflation rate in north. south 9000% rate. their money meant nothing. they couldn't sell anything between the blockade and the north refusing to buy from them. industries in the north that were producing war goods made fortune off of the federal government. north standardizes sides and it causes industry boom later in period 6. because of uniforms, Plainfield CT had a hay day because we were pushing out so many blue uniforms, more than anywhere else in the north. we also strike oil in Pennsylvania during this time which is important later. contributing factor: women. in some communities all the men left for war and the women needed to be "home guard". women were working farms and stuff and there were some guys who opted to stay home and "defend them" when really, they were sometimes taking advantage of them. some women cut their hair and went as men to disguise themselves and fight. health advancements were made, a woman named Clara Barton started the Red Cross and standardizes care of soldiers. the red cross becomes a sign for medics on the battlefield. Dorthea Dix is a nurse during the war and continues the profession afterward and creates the career and training for women.Radical Republicans and Northern DemocratsLincoln wants to be tactful. Radical Republicans want all the confederates dead and gone. also wanted Congress to have more say over what's going on, but the constitution gave Lincoln the power he had. Northern Democrats complained about the level of federal power and wanted some restrictionsAnaconda Planplan from the beginning. first general of plan was General Scott, he was really old, he fought in the war of 1812. he was able to develop the plan. the union needed to choke the south out (blockage) and then they needed to secure the Mississippi to separate them from the West. the last part of the plan was to get to the southern capital. before General Scott got the job to make the plan Robert Lee was offered the job but then he went confederate. Scott steps down before the fighting starts and the Union's issue is we can't find any good generals.Battle of Bull Runthe first recognized battle on July 21st 1861. union General McDowell didn't do well. Union troops mobilized into Virginia. both sides were not well trained. came to a head of this creek and when they meet the people in the nearby town came out to picnic and watch the battle. the union looked like they'd win but this one dude from the confederacy Stonewall Jackson shows up with additional men and they just keep pushing until its over. the union gave up. the confederates could have ended it but Lee knew his men were tired. union general is fired for retreating.General George McClellanknows how to train men. tells Lincoln he needs six months to train an army to protect the capitol. forms what he calls the "Army of the Potomac". April 1862 executes peninsula campaign. the plan was to march up the peninsula as far as he could but the confederacy figured it out. Lee Surrounded McClellan and Stonewall Jackson started taking men into the union capitol. L for the Union. McClellan troops retreat to the sea. Union has had very little success. General Pope is put in command after McClellan is fired. Lincoln brings back McClellan after Pope fails to give him a second chance. the union needs a victory. Lincoln was plotting a new war motive. he needed to win to make the Emancipation Proclamation. less aim on fighting more on appeasement.Battle of Antietam2 battles in the civil war that should be known for test/exam: this and Gettysburg. Sept 17, 1862. Lee goes on the offensive side. he wants to wrap up the war. his goal is to go up and down into DC. he breaks his army into 3 parts so if the Union finds one army theres 2 more backups. making headway.the problem is his men bed down for the night in a camp and when they leave Lee leaves all his battle plans behind. the union isn't far behind following them and they find the papers and the Union ends up knowing the entire plan and about the 3 armies. McClellan takes so long trying to figure out what to do that Lee has time to rejoin his army. the armies meet in Antietam Creek. battle is the bloodiest day in the Civil War. more casualties in this one battle than the war of 1812 and the Mexican American War combined. close contact spontaneous fighting. battle of attrition: no strategy, just how many can you kill before the other side gives up. Lee has a big army but he ran out of men and had to retreat across Antietam Creek. he waited for the day for the Union to come after them but they never did. it was the victory Lincoln needed. *side note* 2/3 of the casualties in the civil war, especially those in Antietam, die from infection of wounds* amputation is common but the instruments weren't cleaned so germs were spreading through blood. conditions were terrible. there was no understanding of science or germs. it did bring advancements to medical understanding. the union lost 12,400 soldiers. confederates lost 10,340ish soldiers. lot less but the population is smaller in the confederacy.Emancipation Proclamationwithout Antietam this wouldn't exist. Lincoln had wanted to use slavery to bring the country together. proposes it to Congress and they weren't sure if he had the power to do this. thought it might be Unconstitutional. Lincoln went for it anyway. he claimed that as commander in chief he had the power to do whatever he needed to do to protect the nation. he had been thinking about how to free the slaves without losing the border states. he considered paying them. Jan 1st 1863 the emancipation proclamation was put in place. he uses it to tell the south that if they don't return back to the union as of jan 1st all their slaves will be freed and taken back to the union. if the confederacy came back, they could have their slaves. he wasn't necessarily freeing all slaves, just the slaves in rebellion. also makes it possible for free slaves to work, make a wage, and join the military. january 1st comes around and no southern states took his offer of rejoining the union. liberated slaves added huge numbers to the military. lincoln doesn't want to lose the union nation. to the minds of the people, the war is now about slavery. the border states weren't mad because they got to keep their slaves. GB can't get involved in the war at all now because it is about slavery. Lincoln realizes in order to heal the country he needs to make an amendment to get rid of slavery so its gone for good. many historians say this is lincoln's smartest move and a way to make the war about slavery without lying.Lincoln's GeneralsMcClellan, Hooker, Meade, Grant. after antietam lincoln not happy with mcclellan. victory, but because mcclellan didn't follow lee and end the war, lincoln fires him and hires general burnsides. he was defeated in fredricksburg, VA and gets fired. the next general is joseph hooker. he was also defeated and fired. he oversaw the battle that hurt the confederacy the most. Battle of Chancellorsville. Stonewall Jackson is killed in this battle by his own men because of confusion. losing him was a huge turning point for the confederacy. hooker is replaced by meade.The MississippiAnaconda plan, block the confederacy off from the west. Grant coming down from the north to take major cities along the river. counter point is Farragut coming from new orleans. in shiloh, grant beds down with his men and they're almost at the river but the confederacy shows up and attacks his men at day break. sneak attach. not an organized battle. south knew the goal was to take the river and block them off. grant manages to quickly mobilize his men and survive and get a W. lincoln didn't see grant was trying to pull out of a situation he knew he and his men wouldn't survive and he gets demoted. he continues to lead down the river. men meet at Vicksburg. July 3rd, 1863, closes the mississippi off from the west. 2 parts of the anaconda plan are complete. huge victory. this victory made lincoln rethink demoting grant. almost on the same day gettysburg happened, which was never meant to happen. lee's goal becomes getting into DC when a lot of the union troops are in the south.Battle of GettysburgJuly 1st, 1863. lasted 3 days. PA. confederacy is low on men and supplies. shoes are especially hard to come by. soldiers start going into towns looking for shoes. word spreads that they're in Gettysburg. trying to get war back to DC. Meade was in DC and could get troops to Gettysburg. when the war started, union troops kept showing up to replace the fallen ones, unlike Lee. Lee wants to try and outsmart the union in the fields. for the first 2 days it looks like a confederate W. problem is where they are positioned had an embankment so the union had an advantage. send 15,000 men across the field in waves. Pickett's Charge. tried to pull a stonewall jackson. his men managed to get through the lines but he had so few men left that once they got there they were defeated. like Antietam, Lee tried to take his men and leave. Meade didn't follow him. same day the anaconda plan is 2/3 complete. beginning of the end of the confederacy. huge victories for the north. biggest issue is the pestilence all the dead bodies in the field brought. Lincoln got congress to make a national cemetery for these people who died (our 3rd national cemetery ends up in normandy). Gettysburg Address. to get this cemetery. lincoln makes a dedication speech at the cemetery. he is concise. encourages the country to finish what the men who had died here started.Army of Freedomany union african american troops. Lincoln referred to them as this. post emancipation proclamation 25% of the slave population in the south left their masters and headed for the union. men women and children left. 180,000 men joined the union armyor navy post 54th success. not contraband, 180K who volunteered. remain segregated troops until vietnam. more than 37,000 members of army of freedom died serving. none of them were able to be buried in Arlington.Grant in CommandGrant has become general, he stays general until the end. the Anaconda plan is finishing. Grant realizes to get the confederates to surrender we need to wear them down and destroy what is left of the south. southern troops are killing more men but the union has more men to spare. Lee wanted his men to fight to the death. similar to spartans in battle. Anaconda tail is wrapped around Richmond. trench warfare is going on outside the capitol. Grant's right hand man is Sherman. they developed Sherman's March to the Sea. Grant will stay close to the union capitol and Sherman will take troops to "squeeze" and kill everyone and burn everything. similar to the scorched earth policy of WWII and stalin. they go from TN with 100,000 men and the goal is to get to atlanta. if the confederacy knows the union is going after everything they get worn down. eventually, the union takes Atlanta in September 1864 and this is perfect because Lincoln uses this victory to secure a second term as president. the south is outraged and a big mess.The Election of 1864Lincoln knows he has to win. he has some competitors. 13th amendment is on his platform this time around. he is leaning towards abolition. running as a democrat with a platform of peace who wants to wrap up the war is George McClellan. he doesn't really like Lincoln and his choices. democratic party splits. peace democrats want is over, while war democrats want the war to continue until the union wins. they wanted to get the south back and allow slavery. industry people want this because it means cheap labor again. VP changes. Andrew Johnson becomes VP. he's from TN. Lincoln chooses him to run with so he can secure the votes of the democrats, which he can't get on his own. Johnson is the only southerner in office who stayed in the union. not necessarily anti-slavery. Lincoln chose him because he chose to stay. electoral college 212 for Lincoln and 21 for the other candidates. McClellan got 45% of the popular vote. the people wanted to war to just be over.13th AmendmentLincoln jumps right into this upon reelection. wants to abolish slavery. starts off apprehensive of this. a year prior radical republicans were the first to propose this. They wanted a permanent change to the constitution. otherwise people would continue to find a way to get slavery. to make an amendment you need 2/3 of both houses to agree upon it. then 75% of state legislatures need to agree to it. there were 36 states at the time, 27 needed to agree to abolition. Lincoln takes it upon himself to get this to congress so it could be in the terms of the confederacy's surrender. he does everything in his power and makes a lot of questionable promises but its all in an effort to get this passed. Grant is doing so well in the south that the south wants to surrender, but Lincoln needs them to hold off because he doesn't have the 13th amendment in the terms of their surrender. Jan 31st, 1865 congress passes the vote. it passes in the states by December 1865. this was only possible because 8 southern states passed it in order to be a part of the union.SurrenderRichmond, VA falls to the Union on April 3rd, 1865. confederate government didn't want the falling of Richmond to be the war over. Jefferson Davis and the govt was worried Lincoln would make them come back to the union and they knew the 13th amendment had been passed. Lee is done fighting. Grant accepts Lee's surrender. Lee is allowed to return home. Lincoln recommends Davis flee the country. one month prior to surrender, Lincoln gave one of his most impressive speeches. 2nd inaugural address. in his speech he announced that when the union gets the south to come back the south will be treated "with malice towards none and charity to all". some in congress disagreed with this approach. Lincoln didn't want anyone to disrespect the south. he doesn't want any sort of hate to fester because he knew it would only cause divide again. April 14th 1865 five days after the surrender Lincoln took his first break in the 4 years the union was at war, he promised to take his wife out because he was now trying to rebuild his home life after being so focused on the war. he ends up being assassinated by John Wilkes Booth in a theater. Booth was a confederacy sympathizer. there were people who were out to sabotage the rebuilding of the Union. upon Lincoln's death, the north is outraged. they now want retribution.aftermathone of the biggest death tolls in any war because it was all one country. 600,000 men lost. the country is $15 billion in debt. the gov't needed to find a way to pay back people and debt. this creates long lasting issues. even today some of the south flies the confederate flag because of race issues or because they still want to divide. the south was destroyed. plantations were destroyed. there was extreme poverty, the aristocracy hierarchy was destroyed.