Intro to Hospitality Ch 9 & 10
Terms in this set (166)
Ch 9: What is Tourism?
World's largest industry!
World Tourism Organization: A specialized agency of the?
World Tourism Organization: The leading international organization in the?
World Tourism Organization: Plays a role in the;
Development of ________ tourism, Development of _________ accessible tourism, Continuation of _________ development, __________ understanding, peace, prosperity, and respect for human ______ and _________
sustainable, universally, economic, International, rights, freedoms
Gross Domestic Product
For many developing countries, tourism represents a large percentage of GDP and a way of gaining a positive balance of trade with ?
Tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for _______, _________, and other?
(From the UNWTO definition of Tourism)
leisure, business, purposes
The WTO and the World Travel & Tourism Council declare the travel and tourism industry to have the following characteristics: __ hours a day, _ days a week, __ weeks a year ________ driver
24, 7, 52, economic
The WTO and the World Travel & Tourism Council declare the travel and tourism industry to have the following characteristics: Accounts for ____% of the GDP = Gross Domestic Product - Worldwide
The WTO and the World Travel & Tourism Council declare the travel and tourism industry to have the following characteristics: Employs ___ million people (___% of the global workforce)
Leading producer of tax revenues
Tourism: Provides governments with substantial ____ revenues.
Tourism: Offers the greatest global ___________ prospects. This trend is caused by:
Tourism: Offers the greatest global employment prospects. This trend is caused by: The opening of _______, An _______ in disposable income and vacations, Reasonably priced _______, An increase in the number of people with _____ and ______, More people with the urge to _____.
borders, increase, airfares, time, money, travel
International arrivals expected to reach over 1.8 billion by year 20__.
Europe, East Asia, the Pacific, and the Americas are the top?
There is interdependency between the various segments of tourism: Travel, lodging, foodservice, and recreation, Each segment is, to an extent, dependent on another for?
The historical development of tourism has been divided into five distinct ages or periods:
Pre-Industrial (prior to 1840)
The railway age
The automobile age
The jet aircraft age
The Cruise ship age
Pre-Industrial Revolution; Travel in the middle ages was mostly for
religious or trade reasons
Pre-Industrial Revolution; People made pilgrimages to various shrines:
Muslims to Mecca and Christians to Jerusalem or Rome
Rail, Automobile, and Coach Travel; Changes in the technology of travel have had widespread implications for society in the?
Rail, Automobile, and Coach Travel; Rail travel influenced the building of towns and cities caused hotels to be built near rail depots, and?
opened up the West
Rail, Automobile, and Coach Travel; Auto travel produced the motel and a network of ?
One of the main factors that led to railroads in the U.S. was the need to move goods and people from one region of the?
country to another
The train made mass travel possible for?
Cars and buses caused a decline in?
Facing a possible collapse of passenger rail services, Congress passed the ______ _________ ________ ___ in 1970 (amended in 2001).
Rail Passenger Service Act
Taking the train makes good sense in densely populated areas such as those in Western Europe and parts of Asia, and high-speed networks are already well developed, often drawing most of the traffic that formerly went by?
Several European nations have banded together to offer non-European visitors unlimited first-class rail service for a?
reduced lump sum
Traveling by Car; Began in 1895 in what country?
Traveling by Car; Today, it is the American way of?
Traveling by Car; is the Largest segment of ground?
Creates accessibility to
Rental Cars; ______ rental companies in the U.S.
Rental Cars; 75% of car rentals take place at?
Rental Cars; The top five rental car company agencies in the United States are?
Hertz, Avis, Enterprise, National, and Budget
Traveling by Bus is a ___________ and _________ mode of travel
Traveling by Bus allows travelers to?
relax and enjoy the ride
Types of bus service:
Local, charter, tour, commuter, airport, urban, and rapid transit
Traveling by Bus The largest and most recognized is the?
Airlines are an integral factor in?
travel and tourism
5,500 ______ are in the air over the U.S. any day.
Competition between airlines to provide lower fairs has had a significant impact on increased?
Travelers are paying ____, but carriers are spending more on _____ and other costs (cutbacks and layoffs)
Projected travel:1 billion by 2012!
Airline alliances will allow them access to each other's "feeder markets" and to resources that will enable them to flourish in what will ultimately be a worldwide?
A feeder market is a market that provides the ______ — in this case, passengers for the particular destination
Hub and Spoke system enables passengers to travel from one smaller city to another smaller city via a?
hub or even two hubs
The hub-and-spoke system has two main benefits: Airlines can service more cities at a?
Airlines can maximize passenger loads from small cities, thereby?
Boeing's first new airplane model in several years, the Dreamliner 787, takes advantage of huge advances made in?
Dreamliner 787 is capable of flying long-haul routes using up to 20% less?
Up to 50 percent of the primary structure of the plane, including the fuselage and wing, is made of components such as carbon fiber, which reduces the weight of the?
Able to fly up to 9,700 miles without refueling, the ________ ___ Dreamliner could easily manage a flight between New York and Moscow, Manila, or Sao Paulo or between Boston and Athens.
Richard Aboulafia, chief analyst with Teal Group, comments, "If you look at it from an airline standpoint: you don't have a choice. If you don't have a 787-class aircraft and your competitor does, he can ______ price you and ____ ______ you."
under, out profit
Fixed costs do not _______: Lease of airplanes, the maintenance of airline-owned or leased terminals, interest on borrowed money, insurance, and pensions
Variable costs _____ and ____:
Wages and salaries, advertising and promotion, fuel costs, passenger food and drink, and landing fees
Variable costs rise and fall: The biggest single cost for airline operation is ______ — which is typically ___ - ___% of total operating costs
labor, 30, 45
A key statistic in analyzing profitability is the _____ ______ — percent of seats filled on all flights, including planes being flown empty to be in position for the next day's schedule
The _____ market has increased dramatically in recent years.
About _ million Americans cruise each year.
Cruise rates vary from about $95-$850 per?
person per day
Carnival Cruise Lines is the most financially __________ — netting about ___% of sales
Most cruise ships sail under foreign flags because they were built abroad for the following reasons:
U.S. labor costs for ships, officers, and crew—in addition to maritime unions—are too high to compete in the world market
U.S. ships are not permitted to operate casino-type gambling
Many foreign shipyards are government subsidized to keep workers employed, thereby lowering construction costs
______ market: Consists of people with incomes in the $35,000-$74,000 range; average cost per person is $__ - $___ per day.
Mass, 95, 195
______ market: Consists of people with incomes in the $75,000-$99,000 range; average cost per person is $175-$350 per day
________ market: Consists of people with incomes higher than $100,000; average cost per person is more than $400 per day
The Economic Impact of Tourism; International travelers spend $94 billion in travel in the?
Over a $100 billion generated in?
59.7 million international travelers visit the U.S. each?
Tourism industry represents 1 in 10 jobs?
The Multiplier Effect; When a tourist spends money to travel, to stay in a hotel, or to eat in a restaurant, that money is recycled by those businesses to purchase more goods, thereby generating further use of the?
In addition, employees of businesses who serve tourists spend a higher proportion of their money locally on various goods and?
Promoters of Tourism are: ________ _________ ___________ (NTO),
_______ _______ of ________ (TIA),
State Offices of Tourism, City-Level Offices of Tourism, __________ & _______ ________ (CVBs), _______ ________ of _______(NOT's)
Pacific Area Travel Association (PATA), Tour __________, Travel ________, Travel __________, Tour __________ and _____________, and Destination management companies
National Tourism Organization, Travel Industry of America,
State Offices of Tourism, City-Level Offices of Tourism
Convention & Visitors Bureaus, National Offices of Tourism,
Pacific Area Travel Association, operators, agencies,
corporations, Wholesalers, Consolidators,
Business travel has declined due to the general?
In addition, increases in airfares, incidences in terrorism, and businesses reducing their travel budgets have negatively affected?
Business travelers tend to be younger, spend more money, travel further, however they do not stay as long as?
Tourism can have both positive and negative impacts on?
World tourism organizations recognize that tourism is a means of enhancing international understanding, peace, prosperity, and universal respect for and observance of human?
rights and fundamental freedom for all
Provided the number of tourists is manageable and they respect the host community's sociocultural norms and values, tourism provides an opportunity for social?
Ecotourism is focused more on individual ______ — it is "tourism with a ________ "
Those who implement and participate in ecotourism activities should follow the following principles:
Build environmental and cultural awareness and respect
Provide positive experiences for both visitors and hosts
Provide direct financial benefits for conservation
Provide financial benefits and empowerment for local people
Raise sensitivity to host countries' political, environmental, and social climate
Support international human rights and labor agreements
Generally, most ecotourism destinations are located in _____________ and ____________ countries.
Ecotourism projects tend to be developed on a?
Ecotourism projects are kept small in order to allow more __ _____ tours and _________ opportunities.
in depth, educational
According to the UNWTO definition, sustainable tourism refers to the environmental, economic, and sociocultural aspects of tourism development, with the establishment of a suitable balance between these three dimensions to guarantee its?
The increasing number of tourists visiting destinations has heightened concerns about the ____________, physical _______ of the place, and sociocultural?
environment, resources, degradation
Places a broad obligation on?
Sustainable tourism should: Make optimal use of _____________ resources that constitute a key element in tourism development. ________ the sociocultural authenticity of host communities, conserve their built and living _______ heritage and ___________ values, and contribute to inter-cultural ______________ and ________.
Ensure viable, long-term ___________ operations
environmental, Respect, cultural, traditional,understanding, tolerance, economic
Culture and heritage are "our legacies from the past, what we live with today, and what we pass on to future generations. Our cultures and natural heritages are irreplaceable sources of?
life and inspiration
UNESCO has designated a number of World Heritage Sites worthy of protection and preservation because of the outstanding value to humanity of their ______ and ______ heritage.
There are 19 World Heritage sites within the?
Cultural tourism: Motivated by interest in cultural?
Heritage tourism: Motivated by historic?
Nature tourism: Motivated by?
Culinary tourism: Culinary adventures are at least a contributing?
Volunteer tourism: Motivations include opportunity to travel ______ and ________ and to experience different?
safely, cheaply, cultures
Trends: __________, __________ tourism, and _________ tourism will continue to grow, _________ arrivals will continue to increase, _____________ will increasingly recognize the importance of tourism, More ________ treaties signed,The promotion and development of _________ will move more from the _______ sector (government) to the _______ sector (involved industry segments), _________ will continue to advance, ________ partnerships and corporate alliances will increase, __________ prospects will continue to improve,
Ticketless ____ travel will continue to increase
Ecotourism, sustainable, heritage,Tourist,Governments, bilateral, tourism, public, private, Technology, Marketing,
Trends: Ticketless ___ travel will continue to rise,
Increased ________ bookings, Managing __________ will continue to be a challenge,
Low-cost, no-frills airlines will continue to gain ________ share, Airlines will entice travelers to book trips via the airline's _________,
____________ airport check-ins will become more popular, Cruise industry will continue to _______, Increase in _________ cruises
Increased concern for the _______ and _______ of travel and tourism, Nature, culinary, and volunteer tourism will _________
air, Internet, destinations, market, website, Automatic,
expand, alternative, health, safety, increase
Ch 10: The word recreation is defined as the use of time for therapeutic refreshment of one's?
body or mind
Recreation allows people to have fun together and form lasting relationships built on the experiences they have?
This recreational process is called?
Leisure is best described as time free from?
work, or discretionary time
Various levels of government that constitute government-sponsored recreation are intertwined, yet distinct, in the _______, ________ and ________ services.
parks, recreation, leisure
The founding fathers of America said it best when they affirmed the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness in the?
Declaration of Independence
Government raises revenue from _______ taxes, ______ taxes, and __________ taxes.
income , sales, property
Transient Occupancy Taxes
Additionally, government raises special revenue from recreation-related activities such as automobile and recreational __________, ______, motor _____, _________ __________ taxes (TOT) on hotel accommodations, etc.
vehicles, boats, fuels, transient occupancy,
The monies are distributed among the various recreation- and leisure-related organizations at the
federal, state/provincial, city, and town levels
The National Parks Service was founded in 1916 by Congress to conserve park resources and to provide for their use by the public in a way that leaves them
The system's current roster of 367 areas covers more than
80 million acres of land
More than 300 million visitors go to the parks
The National Park Service is in the Department of the Interior and is overseen by a director who reports to the?
Secretary of the Interior
There are 397 National Parks divided into seven regions. The Director of the National Park Service establishes and approves service-wide
natural resource policies and standards
The National Park Service budget for 2011 is $3.14 billion, and it employs a?
staff of 21,501
By the early 1900s, fourteen cities had made provisions for supervised play facilities, and the play ground movement gained?
Boston established the first metropolitan park system in year?
In 1898, the New England Association of Park Superintendents (predecessor of the American Institute of Park Executives) was established to bring together park superintendents and promote their?
Recreation management came of age in the 1920s and 1930s, when recreation and social programs were offered as a?
Commercial recreation—often called eco- or adventure tourism—provides residents and visitors with access to an area's spectacular wilderness through a variety of guided?
Began with Knott's Berry Farms:
During the 1920s in Buena Park, California, Knott's Berry Farm was a?
berry farm and a tea room
Business grew and different attractions were added to the site
Began with Knott's Berry Farms:
During the 1920s in Buena Park, California, Knott's Berry Farm was a berry farm and a tea room. Business grew and different ___________ were added to the site.
Today, Knott's Berry Farms is owned by?
Cedar Fair Entertainment Corporation
Theme parks and attractions vary according to ______ — which might be historical, cultural, geographical, and so on.
Some parks and attractions focus on a single ______ while others focus on multiple?
There are an abundance of _______ _______ located throughout the United States.
In 1923, at the age of twenty-one, _____ ______ arrived in Los Angeles from Kansas City to start a new business.
Mickey and Minnie Mouse first appeared in ________ ______, which also incorporated music and sound, on November 18, 1928.
During the next few years, Walt and Roy made many Mickey Mouse films, which earned them enough to develop other projects, including full-length motion pictures in?
The heart of Walt Disney World and its first famous theme park is the?
Magic Kingdom is a giant theatrical stage where guests become part of exciting?
Magic Kingdom is also the home of?
Mickey Mouse, Snow White, Peter Pan, Tom Sawyer, Davy Crockett, and the Swiss Family Robinson.
More than forty major shows and ride-through attractions, not to mention shops and unique dining facilities, fill its?
seven lands of imagination
Epcot is a unique, permanent, and ever-changing world's fair with 2 major themes:
Future World and World Showcase
Highlights include IllumiNations: Reflections of Earth, a nightly spectacle of?
fireworks, fountains, lasers, and classical music.
With fifty major shows, shops, restaurants, ride-through adventures, and backstage tours, Disney's Hollywood Studios (formerly Disney-MGM Studios) combines real working?
motion picture, animation, and television studios with exciting movie attractions
Walt Disney World is the most popular destination resort in the world since its opening in?
Universal Studios featured Guided tours on its famous?
One reason for Universal's success is its adaptation of movies into?
Another is Universal's commitment to guest?
Universal Studios is the Most formidable competitor facing the?
Largest movie studio and theme park is Universal?
Sea World Parks and Entertainment Leader in __________ and?
conservation , education
Sea World Parks and Entertainment are Dedicated to preserving marine life and uses innovative programs to research various?
Sea World Parks and Entertainment Includes:
Sea World, Busch Gardens, Adventure Island, Water Country, Sesame Place, Discovery Cove
Hershey's 1900s: Started producing mass quantities of milk chocolate—resulting in?
Hershey's The following decades brought many product line expansions in 1907: Milton Hershey opened Hershey Park as a leisure park for ___________ of Hershey's Company.
Hershey's The following decades brought many product line expansions in 1908: The park started its soon-to-be huge?
Hershey's park continued to add more rides and attractions; as the park continued to expand, the company decided to open the park's doors to the?
Hershey's The following decades brought many product line expansions in 1971: The park underwent redevelopment to turn the small regional park into a large?
Regional Theme Parks Dollywood: In 1961, a small attraction with a _____ ____ theme called Rebel Railroad opened its doors to the public.
A small attraction with a Civil War theme called Rebel Railroad This attraction is now known all across the world as?
The name switch from Rebel Railroad came about in 1986 when ______ _______ became a co-owner of the park.
LegoLand: Owned and operated by the?
Legoland is Marketed towards young?
GatorLand: Started when Owen Godwin built an __________ pit in his backyard.
After World War II, Godwin bought a 16-acre plot located off Florida's second most traveled highway
Provides a close-up view of Florida's animals in their?
Wet n' Wild: First major ______ park in the U.S.
In 1998, owner George Millay sold the Orlando Park to ________ _______ Recreation Group.
Zoos - Approximately ___ million people visit a U.S. zoo every year.
The first zoo in the United States was the Philadelphia Zoo, built in?
Even today, zoos are extremely popular in the United States and Canada, and almost every major?
city has one
The world-famous San Diego Zoo is located in historic Balboa Park in downtown?
San Diego, California.
Founded in 1916 by Dr. Henry Wegeworth, the zoo's original collection totaled 50 animals. Today, it is home to over 4,000 animals of more than 800 different?
The zoo also features a prominent botanical collection with more than 700,000?
The National Zoological Park in Washington, D.C., is part of the respected Smithsonian Institution. More than 2,000 animals from nearly 400 species make their home in this?
Aquariums are attractions that provide thrilling educational experiences to millions of tourists each year. They are also multi-million-dollar showpieces, displaying creatures vastly different from us?
who dwell on land