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APUSH: America's History- Ch 1 Terms
Bedford St. Martin's AP US History Chapter 1 Terms to Know
Terms in this set (27)
The practice of collecting goods from conquered peoples. The Aztecs and Incas relied on systems of tribute before they were conquered by Spain; after the conquest, Spanish officials adapted indigenous tribute systems to their own needs by binding Indian labor to powerful men through the encomienda and mita systems.
A gendered power structure in which social identity and property descend through the female line.
Spiritual beliefs that center on the natural world. Animists do not worship a supernatural God; instead, they pay homage to spirits and spiritual forces that they believe dwell in the natural world.
A gendered power structure in which social identity and property descend through the male line and male heads of family rule over women and children.
The practice of passing family land, by will, or by custom, to the eldest son.
The traditional term for farm workers in Europe. Some peasants owned land, while others leased or rented small plots from landlords.
A state without a monarch or prince that is governed by representatives of the people.
The belief that individuals owe a service to their community and its government. During the Renaissance, political theorists argued that selfless service to the polity was of critical importance in a self-governing republic.
A cultural transformation in the arts and learning that began in Italy in the fourteenth century and spread through much of Europe. Its ideals reshaped art and architecture and gave rise to civil humanism.
Organizations of skilled workers in medieval and early modern Europe that regulated the entry into, and the practice of, a trade. 632, the newly converted Arab peoples of North Africa used force and fervor to spread the Muslim faith into sub-Saharan Africa, India, Indonesia, Spain, and the Balkan regions of Europe.
A religion that holds the belief that Jesus Christ was himself divine. For centuries, the Roman Catholic Church was the great unifying institution in Western Europe, and it was from Europe that Christianity spread to the Americas.
A religious doctrine that is inconsistent with the teachings of a church.
A religion that considers Muhammad to be God's last prophet. Following the death of Muhammad in A.D
A series of wars undertaken by Christian armies between A.D. 1096 and 1291 to reverse the Muslim advance in Europe and win back the holy lands where Christ had lived.
The Protestant Christian belief that God chooses certain people for salvation before they are born. Sixteenth-century theologian John Calvin was the main proponent of this doctrine which became a fundamental tenet of Puritan theology.
The reform movement that began in 1517 with Martin Luther's critiques of the Roman Catholic Church and that precipitated an enduring schism that divided Protestants from Catholics.
A reaction in the Catholic Church triggered by the Reformation that sought change from within and created new monastic and missionary orders, including the Jesuits (founded in 1540), who saw themselves as soldiers of Christ.
The primary avenue of trade for West Africans before European traders connected them to the Atlantic World. Controlled in turn by the Ghana, Mali, and Songhai empires, it carried slaves and gold to North Africa in exchange for salt and other goods.
The campaign by Spanish Catholics to drive North African Moors ( Muslim Arabs ) from the European mainland. After a centuries-long effort to recover their lands, the Spaniards defeated the Moors at Granada in 1942 and secured control of all of Spain.
A Mohawk man who lost his family in one of the Indian wars and while stricken by grief, he met a spirit who taught him a series of condolence rituals; which led to his preaching a new gospel of peace and power; the condolence rituals he taught became the foundation for the Iroquois Confederacy.
A German monk; 95 Thesis, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion.
Emperor of the kingdom of Mali in Africa. He made a famous pilgrimage to Mecca and established trade routes to the Middle East.
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route.
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to the Indies in 1493.
(1485-1547) Spanish conquistador who in1519, led an army of 600 men to the Yucatan Peninsula; he defeated and conquered the Aztecs.
1466-1520, Ruler of Tenochtitlan and Aztec, killed during the Spanish conquest of Mexico by Hernan Cortes.
Pedro Alvares Cabral
Portuguese leader of an expedition to India; blown off course in 1500 and landed in Brazil
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