Pathology Unit 1

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The study of diseases that can cause abnormalities in structure or function of various organ systems
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Terms in this set (82)
Inflammation consists of 4 eventsAlterations in blood flow, migration of WBC, phagocytosis, repair of injuryFibrous scar is replaced with young capillaries and connective tissue to form collagen- replaces dead tissueGranulation tissueInflammation collagen replacement- a tumor like scar- more common in African AmericansKeloidsThe repair for inflammation results in either _____ or ______granulation tissue, keloidsManifestation of inflammation includesFever, leukocytosis, pus formation, bacteria, abscess, granulomatousPus formation- _______ bacteriapyogenic5 signs of inflammationRubor, calor, tumor, dolor, loss of functionRuborrednessCalorheatTumorswellingDolorpainResult from an inflammatory reactionLocalized edemaSwelling throughout the body (anasarca)Generalized edemaEdema accumulates in ambulatory patients in theirAnkles and lower legsEdema accumulates in nonambulatory patients in theirLower back, sacral area and lungs_______ deprives the organ's cells and tissues of oxygen and nutrientsIschemia______ is a localized area of ischemic necrosis within a tissue or organInfarctIschemia and infarct tend to occur in ________ with astherosclerosis or weak cardiac function- also more likely to occur after _____ or child birthelderly, surgeryRupture of a blood vesselHemorrhageHemorrhage may be ____ or _____external, internal4 types of hemmorhageHematoma, hemothorax/hemopericardium/hemoperitoneum/hemoarthorsis, petechiae, purpura, ecchymosisBlood trapped within body tissueHematomaBruise larger than 1-2 cm- subcutaneous hematomaEcchymosisBody can withstand a sudden loss of ____ of blood volume or slower losses of more20%Alterations in cell growthTumors____ atrophy fasterdiabeticsThe reduction in size and number of cells- will cause disease in functionAtrophyFailure of a normal cell to grow and developAplasiaAn increase in size of cells or tissue- response to need for increased functionHypertrophyAn increase in the number of cellsHyperplasiaLoss of uniformity of individual cells in their orientationDysplasia______ means "new growth"NeoplasiaAbnormal proliferation of cells- no longer under control of what causes new cell growthNeoplasiaNeoplasia can be ____ or _____Benign, malignantWhen tumor cells flourish and cause patients to become weak and emaciatedCachexiaCancer is latin forCrabFibrous tissueFribromaCartilagenous tissueChondromasGlandular tissueAdenomaCystic massesCystadenomasTumors of muscleMyomasSoft fatty tissueLipomasBlood vesselsAngiomasEpithelial tumorsPapilloma or polypAffect epithelial, skin, and mucous membranesCarcinomasMalignancies of glandular tissue (breast, liver, GI tract)AdenocarcinomaResemble stratified squamous epithelium (lung, head and back regions)Squamous cell carcinomaHighly malignant- connective tissues, bone, muscle, and cartilage- spread more rapidly than carcinomas but not as commonSarcomasBizarre growth pattern or anaplastic- without formUndifferentiatedMalignant neoplasms spread 3 waysSeeding within body cavities, lymphatic, hematogenousSeeding is commonlyGI, lung, CNS__________ spread depends on primary site and natural lymphatic drainage pathwayLymphaticAssesses aggressiveness or degree of malignancyGradingThe extensiveness of a tumor at its primary site and the presence of metastasis to lymph nodes and organsStagingGrading allows for ____ of response to therapypredictionStaging helps to determine _____ of therapytype4 treatments for malignanciesSurgery, radiation, hormone therapy, chemotherapyRadiation is _______ - undifferentiatedfast growingCytoxic substance that kills neoplastic cell- but may also injure healthy cellsChemotherapy_____ is determined- the rate of the illness occursMorbidity_____ is calculated- depending on stage- calculated by reviewing the populations- expected death rateMortalityMost common hereditary abnormalityEnzyme deficiencyAlways produce an effectDominantGenes from parent with both have a particular trait but are not present in parentRecessiveSex linked disorders are passed on from females to males, but the male does not transmit to sons, but all of his ____ will have the traitdaughtersForegin substances- bacteria, viruses, fungi and toxinsAntigens(aka immunoglobulins)- counteract antigens- binds with antigen to make them harmlessAntibodies______ immunity- vaccine or toxoidActive______ immunity- a dose or performed antibodies from the immune serum of an animal is given (usually horses)Passive3 reactions to antigensSystemic, cytotixic, delayed_______ is attributed to infection with retroviruses (RNA viruses)- aka: HIV- human immunodeficiency virusesAIDSAIDS involves thelungs, GI tract, and CNS