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Neuro Test 2 Terms
Neuroscience Test 2 Terms
Terms in this set (109)
deep white matter that carries conscious sensory to cortex (Fasciculus Gracilis and Cutaneous) and Motor spinal cord (corticospinal tract)
damage to sensory association areas
can not recognize objects (make meanings) even though the reception of that sense is OK.
can tell shape and size of object but not identify the object, can tell that something smells, but not what the smell is
can see, but not recognize the object
cannot perform a movement even though the basic skills are intact.
building objects (2-D and 3-D)
repetition of movement
muscles do not work to make speech (not planning as in Broca's)
is caused by damage to the primary voluntary motor pathways, which originate in the frontal lobes of the brain and descend to the brainstem and spinal cord. These central tracts constitute the pyramidal or upper motor neuron (UMN) system. Virtually all individuals with spastic dysarthria present with a broad spectrum of speech disturbances, including:
Lower motor neuron damage to the sufferer's nerve. This damage emerge from the cranial (brain stem) or spinal cord. Then, it affects directly to muscles used in speech production
Broca's Aphasia (including nonverbal communication)
May not be able to talk. May have phrases (often low level Limbic memory) May not be able to write.
Can not understand language they hear, but can talk, but speech is not understandable. This effects written language also.
Disconnect between Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Can understand speech, but not make speech. Cannot read.
Combination lesions of Broca's, Wernicke's, and Conduction.
tendency to behave as if the involved side does not exist after a stroke (CVA)
Contraversive Push (CVA)
pushing toward the weak side - tend to fall (10%)
disordered thinking, delusions, and social withdrawal. Abnormality of neurotransmitters and development of frontal/temporal lobes and amygdala (systems not connected)
sudden excessive neuronal discharge (too many impulses)
effects only a restricted area of the cortex (function of that area disrupted)
effects entire cortex.
loss of consciousness but no motor manifestations
contraction then release of muscles (person confused after Tonic-clonic seizures)
inability to focus (may be RAS: arousal no focus)
(trisomy 21) effects body development and cognition
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
effects body development and cognition
Autistic Spectrum Disorders
ranges of impaired social skills, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors linked to abnormal development of limbic system and linkages to social behaviors
Limbic System -Sympathetic
loss of Long-term memory
loss of memories that occurred prior to the trauma
loss of memories that occurred after the trauma
deterioration of a normal brain. (Alzheimer's Type)
failure to develop specific types of intelligence skills
difficulty in reading, writing, and spelling yet their conversational and visual abilities are normal.
inability to identify objects by touch (can describe it, but not name it)
cancer takes over cells and they divide wrong. The chemical process takes over cells next to them and the process is repeated in other cells.
cells divide at wrong pace and the tumor grows in size which tears structures or puts pressure on them
narrowing of the vertebral canal from arthritis or disk herniation. Pain and weakness, usually in lumbar area.
narrowing of the intervertebral foramen from arthritis, disk problems and spondophytes (both growths). Produces pain and weakness usually in the cervical area.
inability to recognize objects or shapes (letters) when using a specific sense. Problem is in association area, not with sensory system or reception area.
inability to recognize letters, pictures, shapes when using visual information. Problem in visual association area.
inability to construct 3-D objects from written or 2-D directions. Cant put the bike together the night before Christmas.
blood clot formed within the area of the occlusion
blood clot formed in elsewhere and moves to another area to cause occlusion.
involuntary, back and forth movements of the eye. Normal reaction to spinning (should have it). Some ADHD kids do not have one. To much is also bad .
Nystagmus occurs with
little or no movement to the head
an illusion of motion. Vestibular system problems - system over-reacts to input (not inhibited)
motor disorder that develops in utero or during infancy.
Spastic CP is characterized by
Golgi tendon organ
stretch, key component of the basal ganglia
praxia, what we feel
taxia, validation, tone
3 places you can get sensory from
gogli tendon (stretch reflex), proprioception, feedback loop from gamma motor system (muscle spindle)
True or False: The spinal cord does not go all the way down.
True, terminates at T12/L1
True or False: There is a spinal cord level for each vertebral level
True or False: The structure of each spinal cord level is the same.
The Spinal Cord is made up of a number of _____ tracts that carry a specific set of sensory or motor information.
Vertical Tracts (Up/Down Tracts)
The sensory & motor information may be:
conscious/voluntary or reflexive
Each spinal cord level is made up of ______ tracts.
Horizontal Tracts (In/Out Tracts)
Horizontal tracts are made of:
dorsal/ventral roots, spinal nerves, and dorsal/ventral rami
Lower spinal cord levels have longer roots and make up the:
A complete lesion of the spinal cord cuts all of the _____ tracts and there is loss _______.
vertical tracts, loss from the level of the lesion and down.
True or False: There may still be reflexes after a complete lesion to the spinal cord that cuts all of the vertical tracts
True, reflexes may or may not be intact.
True or False: A complete lesion of the spinal cord may cut one horizontal tract but those below lesion may survive
True, horizontal tract cut those below may survive
Horizontal tracts that are alive may produce
spinal cord reflexes
Example of good spinal cord reflex produced by horizontal tracts:
blow/bladder reflexive dumping
Example of bad spinal cord reflex produced by horizontal tracts:
Very low level lesions or Cauda Equina lesions will produce symptoms like a spinal cord injury but _____ functions will also be lost.
spinal cord lesions can be _____ or ______.
complete or incomplete/partial
In a/an _________ lesion only those vertical tracts that are cut will be lost, the rest will be OK.
An incomplete lesion may produces losses:
on both sides of the body (below the level of the lesion)
Incomplete lesions will produce their own
pattern of losses
Incomplete lesions may only cut part of the tract. This may produce:
very different patterns of loss
As an OT I must test conscious sensory, voluntary motor, and reflex activity to determine:
level of lesion and if the lesion is complete or incomplete
Spinal cord trauma produces _______ and a new client may look like a total lesion.
During the spinal shock period I must hope there is ______ or ________.
no lesion or incomplete lesion
If we have a complete lesion at L3 have we cut the spinal cord?
no, L3 lesion is at vertebral level vs. spinal cord level
Function of the lateral corticospinal tract:
conscious voluntary motor
Function of the rubriospinal tract:
tone, comes thru BG (via red nucleus)
Function of the lateral reticulospinal tract:
Function of the tectospinal tract
survival skills, audio/visual reflexes
Function of the vestibulospinal tract:
complete cut lose:
all 4 tracts
lateral cut lose:
medial cut lose:
lacking normal voluntary control of excretory functions
complete bilateral lesion symptom:
If you cut the cauda equina or S level you may lose
reflexes as well
bowel and bladder
voluntary reflexive control
segmental lesion interferes with neural function at
only at the level of the lesion
lesions interrupting the vertical tracts result in
a loss of function below the level of the lesion
temporary suppression of spinal cord function at & below the lesion following spinal cord injury
spinal shock is caused by
During spinal shock
neural control of the pelvic organs is depressed
Loss of descending sympathetic control due to lesions above T6 result in 3 dysfunctions:
autonomic dysreflexia, poor thermoregulation, orthostatic hypotension
excessive activity of sympathetic nervous system elicited by noxious stimuli below the lesion
autonomic dysreflexia is characterized by
excessive increase in blood pressure, headache, flushing of skin and sweating above the lesion
extreme fall in blood pressure on assuming upright position
segmental lesions cut _______ loss is _____
whole spinal nerve, at 1 level
vertical lesions cut _______ loss is_____
partial cut of tract, tracts cut are lost, rest ok
one side may have more loss
why would you have paresis of muscles at C5 and C6 not plegia?
because only cut at 1 level, segmental lesion
crosses above spinal cord =
crosses in spinal cord=
pain & temp cross
in spinal cord, opposite side
partial lesion to spinal cord cuts tracts to pain & temp, lesion R side....loss =
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