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Ch 12 - Gender roles and sexuality - Life Span Human Development 7th Edition
Life Span Human Development 7th Edition Intelligence and Creativity Sigelman and Rider chapter 12 - gender roles and sexuality
Terms in this set (41)
patterns of behavior and traits that define how a female or male should act in a particular society.
gender role norms
society's expectation or standards concerning what males and females "should" be like
these involve nurturance and empathy, being a mother, teacher, nurse. we typically expect females to be in these roles.
these involve being a protector and provider, such as being the bread winner, doctor, lawyer. we typically expect males to be in these roles
gender role stereotypes
over generalized and largely inaccurate beliefs about what males and females "are" like; expectations or beliefs that individuals within a given culture holds about the behaviors that are characteristic of males and females.
a process by which children become aware that they are biological males or females and acquire the motives, values and patterns of behavior that a given culture considers appropriate for members of the biological sex aka gender role development
gender typed behavior
behaving in "gender appropriate" ways
an awareness that one is either boy or girl, acquired by the time child is 2 1/2 - 3 years old
all the features that a society associates with or considers appropriate for being a man or woman.
an orientation that emphasizes connectedness to others and includes traits of emotionality and sensitivity to others
an orientation toward individual action and achievement that emphasizes traits of dominance, independence, assertiveness and competitiveness.
gender similarities hypothesis
states males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables.
11 ways males and females differ
1. females sometimes display greater verbal abilities than males, but on most verbal tasks the difference is small. 2. Males outperform females on many test of spatial ability. 3. males and females perform similarly on most standardized math tests and females obtain slightly higher math grades in the classroom, this was not the case historically. 4. Females display greater memory ability than boys. 5. Males engage in more physical and verbal aggression than females, starting as early as 17 months. 6. Boys are more physically active. 7. Boys are more developmentally vulnerable. 8. Girls are more tactful and cooperative, as opposed to being more forceful and demanding, and are more compliant with requests from adults. 9. Both males and females report females are more nurturant and empathetic. 10. Females are more prone to develop anxiety disorders, depression and phobias. Males are more likely to display antisocial behavior and drug and alcohol abuse. 11. Males use the computers more than females and express greater confidence in their computer skills.
social role hypothesis
alice eagly - differences in the roles that women and men play in society do a lot to create and maintain gender stereotypes.
gender roles and the infant
3-8 months males spend more time looking are truck and females spend more time looking at dolls., 3-4 months can distinguish male and female faces. by 24 months the look longer at males and females performing gender INconsistent activities. by 18 months seem to have an emerging understanding that they are either like other males or like other females, even if they can verbalize it.
awareness that you are either boy or girl, by 2.5 - 3 years old
separating into boys and gilrs peer groups and interacting far more often with their own sex than the other sex
gender differences may be magnified by hormonal changes associated with puberty and increased pressure to conform to gender roles. - largely related to peer influence and the growing importance of dating - social pressure to conform to gender stereotypes doesn't have to be real, just the perception can lead to gender intensification.
gender role development theory by Money and Ehrhardt. calls attention to the ways in which biological events influence the development of boys and girls.prenatal hormones. suggest that early biological development influences how people react to a child and that these social reactions then have much to do with children assuming gender roles.
girls that were prenatally exposed to excess androgens - were recognized as genetic females and underwent surgery to alter genitals and were raised as girls. 37% described as homo or bi sexual. performed better than other females on test of spatial ability.
Who is Robert Sapolsky
biologist that argued that being in an aggressive situation may raise testosterone levels.
Is gender role development influenced by biology, social experience and individual behavior?
how do infant males and females differ?
males - more active, longer and heavier, more irritable, less neurologically mature. Females are more sensitive to touch, mature physically 2-21/2 years faster, show speedier skeletal development
gender role development and the toddler
increased awareness of gender differences, prefer gender typed (appropriate) toys and activities, will actively avoid opposite sex toys (esp boys), greater latitude for cross sex play for girls.
gender role development and elementary school years
children play with primarily same sex friends, gender segregation or sex cleavage
how do room decorations differ among boys and girls
boys are characterized "toys of the world" girls are characterized as "toys of the home"
4 influences in gender role development
1. parents influence us by activities, clothes, toys and room decorations. - most toys bought by parents at christmas are gender neutral - kids request 75% gender typed toys. 2. the child influences by what they pursue 3. biology 4. media influences - age 5 and udner watch 25.5 hrs week. shows on tv still conform to gender stereotypes.
age 5-7, children understand that their biological sex will stay the same, before this age they believed if you dress different it can change. from book - demonstrated by very few 3-5 year olds, about half of 6-7 year olds and majority of 8-9 year olds.
social learning theory and gender development
children learn masculine and feminine identities and preferences in 2 ways. 1. through differential reinforcement where children are rewarded for sex appropriate behaviors and punished for behaviors considered more appropriate for members of the opposite sex. 2. through observational learning where children adopt the attitudes and behaviors of same sex models.
cognitive theory and gender development
cognitive theorists emphasize the cognitive aspects of gender role development, stating that as children acquire an understanding of gender, they "teach" themselves to be girls or boys.
cognitive theorist - children first understand they are boys or girls and then they actively seek same sex models and a range of information about how to act like a boy or girl.
cognitive theory - age 4 - they learn gender identity is stable over year - boys become men girls become woman
age 5-7 gender is stable across all situations
what is gender schema theory
martin and halverson - cognitive threory -believe children self socialization starts as soon as child acquires gender identity at 2 or 3. kohlberg said it starts at older age 5-7.
organized sets of beliefs and expectations about males and females that influence the kinds of information they will attend to and remember. "is this for boys or girls" answer dictates if they reject or embrace
by a balancing or blending of both agentic and communal traits
what percent of adults are androgynous
1/3 are. 1/3 are traditionally gender typed
are androgynous adults more flexible?
bem yes. also have higher self esteem, and perceived as better adjusted than their traditionally gender typed peers.
david gutmann - hypothesis that gender roles and gender related traits in adulthood are shaped by the requirement that mothers and fathers adopt different roles to raise children successfully. men are agentic women are communal.
instead of giving up traits as you as, you add to them and become more balanced
what age to boys and girls first feel sexual attraction?
age 10 - herdt and mcclintock - due to maturation of adrenal glands. comes before puberty and is critical in sexual development. adrenal glands mature around 6-8 and produce low amounts of androgens.
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