Spielvogel Chapter 21

Quadruple Alliance
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Terms in this set (25)
Corn Law of 1815Imposed high tariffs on foreign grain to protect the aristocrat's economic interests (tories)Peterloo Massacredeaths of eleven people by Calvary in fields of Manchester , led Parliament to take even more repressive measuresChamber of Peerspart of the French legislature, had more authority than Napoleon had allowed chosen by the kingChamber of DeputiesFrench lower house of chosen by electorateBaron Heinrich von Stein and Prince Karl von HardenbergChief ministers who instituted political and institutional reforms in response to Prussia's defeat at the hands of Napoleon. The reforms included the abolition of serfdom, municipal self-government through town councils, the expan- sion of primary and secondary schools, and universal military conscription to form a national army.King Frederick William IIFirst leader of German ConfederationBurschenschaftenstudent societies in the German states dedicated to fostering the goal of a free, united Germany; "Honor, Liberty, Fatherland," were in part inspired by Friedrich Ludwig JahnKarlsbad Decrees of 1819.closed the Burschenschaften, provided for censorship of the press, and placed the universities under close supervision and control. Thereafter, except for a minor flurry of activity from 1830 to 1832, Metternich and the cooperative German rulers maintained the conservative status quo.Alexander I of RussiaFreed political prisoners and reformed the educational system. He refused, however, to grant a constitution or free the serfs in the face of opposition from the nobility.Northern unionincluded both young aristocrats who had served in the Napoleonic wars and become aware of the world outside Russia and intellectuals alienated by the censorship and lack of academic freedom in Russian universities. The Northern Union favored the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the abolition of serfdom. The sudden death of Alexander in 1825 offered them their opportunity.Third Section of the tsar's chancelleryRussian political police strengthened by Nicolas ILiberalismThere were divergences of opinion among people classified as liberals, but all began with the belief that people should be as free from restraint as possible. This opinion is evident in both economic and political liberalismEconomic liberalismAlso called classical economics, economic liberalism had as its primary tenet the concept of laissez-faire, the belief that the state should not interrupt the free play of natural economic forces, especially supply and demandRomanov DynastyDynasty elected in 1613 at end of Time of Troubles; ruled Russia until 1917Revolutions of 1848Democratic and nationalist revolutions that swept across Europe during a time after the Congress of Vienna when conservative monarchs were trying to maintain their power. The monarchy in France was overthrown. In Germany, Austria, Italy, and Hungary the revolutions failed.