Language Arts MTTC

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Terms in this set (104)
Cinquaina five line stanzaDiamante PoemA diamond shaped poem with 7 lines.Onomatopoeiathe use of words that imitate soundsL5 Bridginga student requires only minimal language support and can function at the same level as peers with a first language of EnglishverbAn action wordNounA person, place, thing, or ideaVillanellea nineteen-line poem with two rhymes throughoutphonemesmallest distinctive sound sounds represented by the letters in the alphabetfolk talea story originating in popular culture, typically passed on by word of mouth.homonyma word spelled or pronounced exactly like another word, but having a different meaningphoneme blendingcombining phonemes to make a wordInformal Assessmentoccurs in a more casual manner to monitor student progress and guide future instructionPathosAppeal to emotionPhonicsthe sounds that letters make and the letters that are used to represent soundsRimeA Vowel and any following consonants of a syllableScapegoatingBlaming an innocent person or a group for one's own troublesL1 Enteringa student rarely uses English to communicate and responds nonverbally to instruction, constructing meaning primarily from illustrations, graphs, and chartsAnalogyA comparison of two different things that appear to have nothing in commonEthosappeals to credibilityadjectivea word that modifies a noun or pronounLogosAppeal to logicConjunctionswords used to join words, phrases, or clausesAnaphorathe repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of consecutive phrasesL2 Beginninga student can communicate basic information in a limited mannerimperative moodused for commandstop-down processingthe use of preexisting knowledge to find out meaningHaiku3 unrhymed lines (5, 7, 5)fairy talea fictional tale, marked by fantasy and magic, often appealing to the imaginationSonnets14 line poems written in iambic pentameterAcrosticverse in which certain letters such as the first in each line form a word or messageJargonspecial words or expressions that are used by a particular profession or group and are difficult for others to understand.chronological plotexposition, rising action, climax, falling action, resolutionL4 ExpandingA student can read in the second language with demonstrated fluency, but may still struggle with comprehending text that describes complex or abstract concepts.DenotativeThe dictionary definition of a wordSyllogismsubtle argumentbottom-up processingfigures out the meaning of a message by using dataGerundA verb form ending in -ing that is used as a nounindefinite nounNames people, places, and things that are not specificWriting Processprewriting, drafting, revising, editing, publishingHyperboleexaggerated statements or claims not meant to be taken literally.MetaphorA comparison without using like or asParadoxA statement or proposition that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality expresses a possible truth.FableA brief story that leads to a moral, often using animals as charactersfree versePoetry that does not have a regular meter or rhyme schemeAdverbA word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverbL3 Developinga student understands more complex speech and can communicate spontaneously in simple sentencessimple sentenceA sentence consisting of one independent clause and no dependent clausePredicateexplains or described the subject being talked aboutAdhominemAttacking the individual instead of the argumentcompound sentencea sentence with two or more independent clauses, often joined by one or more conjunctionsMorphologystructure of wordsQualitative measuresanalysis of text elements such as structure, language clarity, knowledge demandsTranscendentalistsFollowers of a belief which stressed self-reliance, self- culture, self-discipline. They promoted the belief of individualism and caused an array of humanitarian reforms.complex sentenceA sentence with one independent clause and at least one dependent clausehomophonesThese are words that are pronounced the same, but have different spellings and meanings.Quantitate Measuresreadability scores determined by computer algorithmsindicative moodused for facts, opinions, and questionssubjunctive moodwishes and statements that go against factDuring world language instruction, which of the following student activities would best incorporate opportunities for students to negotiate meaning?playing a game in which a word must be guessed by use of circumlocutionWhich of the following characteristics of literacy development best illustrates the relationship between speaking and writing?using phonetic spellingA second-grade teacher notices that several students regularly place adjectives after nouns in their writing and speaking. These students most likely require explicit instruction related to which of the following English language systems?syntacticAt the beginning of the school year, a kindergarten teacher talks informally with students' families about the kinds of prior experiences their children have had, especially those related to learning and literacy. The teacher uses this information to help plan dramatic play and literacy centers that reflect familiar settings, tasks, and experiences. These actions most clearly demonstrate the teacher's awareness of the:interconnections between language, literacy, and culture.As a regular component of whole-group mathematics instruction, a fifth-grade teacher guides students in closely reading key pages from the grade-level textbook. Afterward, in addition to guiding students in applying the new material presented in the text to sample exercises, the teacher also helps the students summarize the text's main ideas orally. Finally, students draft their own written summaries of the new concepts, processes, and/or terminology in their mathematics journals. This approach to content-area instruction promotes students' school achievement primarily in which of the following ways?by promoting students' development of skill in using listening, speaking, reading, and writing for academic purposesA kindergarten teacher wants to involve all families in helping students develop oral language skills that support literacy development. Which of the following teacher recommendations to families is likely to be most effective in addressing this goal?"Talk with your children while working together when preparing meals and doing other daily activities."A teacher is designing a sequence of instruction for teaching letter recognition skills to emergent readers. Which of the following sets of letters would be most appropriate for a teacher to include in the first lessons?a, m, t, s, f, dAn English Language Learner in a fourth-grade class can read fluently in a language that is written using a nonalphabetic script. Which of the following concepts is likely to be most difficult for this student to grasp when learning to read in English?Letters correspond to phonemes.A kindergarten teacher regularly reads aloud "big books" to her students. As she reads she points to each word, and during successive readings she encourages students to join in the reading as she points. Which of the following emergent literacy skills is this activity most likely to promote?understanding of the relationship of speech to printA kindergarten teacher regularly leads classroom discussions before beginning a new read-aloud of informational texts. For example, he may conduct a book walk of the pictures, point out some key vocabulary, and then ask students to share what they already know about the subject of the book. This practice most clearly demonstrates the teacher's understanding of which of the following factors that influence emergent readers' construction of meaning?the role of activating background knowledge related to a textWhich of the following words would be most appropriate to include in phonics instruction designed to promote beginning readers' ability to decode regular CVCe words?makeA fifth-grade student who is having difficulty reading the word instinctively in a science text would be best advised to apply which of the following skills?structural analysisA second-grade teacher would like to improve students' ability to read narrative texts with appropriate expression. Which of the following strategies is likely to be most effective in addressing this goal?leading students in an echo reading of a short storyAs part of an informal reading assessment, a teacher asks a first-grade student to read a grade-level passage aloud. As the student reads, the teacher marks the student's errors on a copy of the passage, indicating errors of substitution, insertion, omission, and reversal. The teacher also notes any repetitions or self-corrections. This assessment is likely to provide the most useful information about the student's skills in which of the following areas of reading development?word recognitionWhich of the following scenarios would provide the best evidence that a kindergarten student is progressing according to typical stages of literacy development?At the beginning of the school year, the student told a different story each time he reread his writings, but now he follows the letters with his finger and uses similar words when rereading.Which of the following words would be most appropriate to teach as a sight word to fifth-grade studentsscientistWhich of the following teacher actions during a read-aloud of a "big book" is likely to be most effective in supporting kindergartners' vocabulary development?pausing regularly to elaborate on the content of a passage and to question students about key words in the textDeveloping a timeline of events would likely be the most appropriate strategy for upper-elementary students to use independently to promote their comprehension of which of the following types of text?mystery novelA fourth-grade teacher wants to help students build their knowledge of content-specific vocabulary words to support their comprehension of grade-level science and social studies texts. Which of the following strategies would be most effective for this purpose?guiding students in creating a graphic organizer to visually represent relationships between the key words in a given textA sixth-grade teacher asks the following question during a class discussion of an informational text the class is reading together: "According to the author, why are kelp forests found at different latitudes on the western and eastern coasts of a continent?" This question prompts students to apply which of the following levels of reading comprehension?literalWhich of the following lists of words would be most appropriate for a fourth-grade teacher to use as example words in a lesson designed to reinforce students' structural analysis skills?undeniable, regroup, pregame, submarineRemember the fun you had with your favorite toys and games while growing up? Toymakers are hoping you do, and they are hoping that you are sharing the experience with your children. Toy companies have long used nostalgia to lure adults back to their childhood favorites while updating those same toys to attract a new generation of children. Colorforms, created by a husband and wife in their New York apartment in 1951, turns 60 this year, and University Games is using the occasion to remind parents of a popular childhood toy and to entice them to buy one for their children. And Mattel is commemorating the 40th anniversary of Uno with a yearlong marketing campaign to promote the family card game. This excerpt is most characteristic of which of the following types of expository text?newspaper articleA television commercial for a breakfast cereal features several adults in their twenties and thirties who cheerfully consume a bowl of the cereal before bicycling, jogging, and hiking to the accompaniment of upbeat, fast-paced music. Which of the following messages is the commercial most likely intended to convey?the cereal is a good source of energy.Which of the following themes is frequently explored in the works of Julia Alvarez, Mildred Taylor, and Laurence Yep?the determination to overcome social injusticeDuring textbook reading, a sixth-grade teacher instructs students to carefully read the first and last sentence in each paragraph and to notice bold print and graphics. By engaging students in this activity, the teacher is applying which of the following strategies for promoting comprehension of expository texts?determining the importance of information presented in a textAs a first-grade teacher reads a story aloud to students, she periodically pauses to ask the class questions such as "How do you think the character is feeling now?" or "What do you think will happen next?" This instructional strategy is most likely intended to promote students'active construction of meaning.According to the standard conventions of English in the United States, which of the following sentences contains an error in usage?I would of gone to the movies, but I had too much homework to do.A student makes notes related to a topic without consideration for paragraph structure or logical development of ideas. The student is most likely engaged in which of the following steps of the writing process?brainstormingWhich of the following sentences would be most appropriate to include in a formal letter?Although I have limited work experience, I learn new skills quickly and apply them effectively.A student is preparing to give a speech to a large group of peers at a school assembly. When rehearsing the speech, the student notices that several words are repeated unnecessarily throughout the speech. Which of the following tools would be most helpful for the student to use when revising the speech?thesaurusA fifth-grade teacher would like to provide students with opportunities to share ideas while developing independence during the writing process. Which of the following student activities would be most appropriate for this purpose?peer reviewingA city resident is developing a speech to be delivered to a local civic organization. In the speech, she hopes to persuade those present to support a city sales tax. Which of the following communication skills would be most important for the speaker to utilize to achieve her goal?addressing the values and concerns of the audienceWhich of the following oral responses most clearly indicates that critical listening has occurred?"How does your organization use private donations?"Which of the following teacher strategies would most effectively help students avoid plagiarism when developing and presenting research projects?modeling how to properly paraphrase, quote, and cite sourcesRead the excerpt below from a speech by an elementary school principal to a large group of students; then answer the question that follows. I'd like to extend a warm welcome to everyone on the first day of the school year. This year promises to be a truly amazing year, because as you all know, school is cool and our school is the coolest. This year we've got a whole new group of awesome first graders. How cool are they? Let's have a big round of applause for all of our awesome students! In this speech, the principal's use of slang and idiomatic language serves primarily to:establish rapport with the audience.A third-grade teacher plans to assess students' active listening skills by observing small-group discussions and using a checklist to record observations. Which of the following criteria would be most appropriate to include on the checklist?rephrasing a speaker's statement before responding