Test: AP Human Geography Chapter 10
Terms in this set (55)
Before the first agricultural revolution, people were engaged primarily in what type of agriculture?
hunting and gathering
About how many years has farming existed?
When did farming start?
What were 4 of the first important agricultural hearths?
Fertile Crescent (SW Asia), Ancient Egypt, N. China, Indus Valley (S. Asia), Ethiopia
Where do most scientists think seed agriculture had its origin?
SW Asia-Fertile Crescent
What was the dominant crop of the fertile crescent?
Wheat and barley
What is the purpose of crop rotation?
to maintain soil fertility
What was the driving force behind the diffusion of many of today's crops from their original source?
As the industrial revolution creates factories, factories need raw materials which leads to colonialism and imperialism which causes crops to diffuse around the world
Which of the following countries owes its cotton fields to the influence of Great Britain?
List 4 main factors related to the Green Revolution
-automated or mechanical irrigation
-pesticides, chemical fertilizers
Name 4 geographical realms significantly affected by the Green Revolution
US, Middle East, Asia, Europe
(everywhere other than Sub-Saharan Africa)
Name 4 consequences of the adoption of hybrid seeds
-reduced genetic diversity
-migration from rural farming to urban cities
-heavy use or fertilizers and pesticides
-heavy use of freshwater
What has been the consequence of genetically engineered foods?
mad cow disease, artificial hormones, antibiotic overuse and harmful diseases
Name 4 practices of sustainable agriculture
-sensitive use of land management systems
-use of organic fertilizers
-limited use of fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides
-better integration of crops and livestock
-the industrialization of agriculture
4 characteristics of the industrialization of agriculture
-combining smaller farms into fewer, larger food production facilities
-use of biotechnology and hybrid seeds
-industrial substitutes are used for additional farming material
What innovation increased the production of livestock in Argentina and Australia in the late 19th century?
What country purchases over half of the worlds annual production of coffee?
In what country were rubber trees first tapped?
what is the downside of LDC's becoming reliant on cash crops such as sugar, cacao and coffee?
they are at the mercy of MDC's who purchase them
which unique rectangular scheme system in the US was adopted after the American Revolution?
township and range
what is a form of village that still exists today in many rural areas?
Rural housing throughout the world reflects different housing types based on what type of environment?
Who does most of the agricultural work in Africa and much of the less developed world?
economic activities are grouped into five major aggregates of productive activities. which denotes the extractive sector?
primary: products close to the ground
what is desertification and where is it occurring?
degradation of land in arid areas due to man-made activities.
Sahel, North Africa
is there a relationship between the percentage of a country's labor force and the number of subsistence farms, if so, what is it?
less people working in agriculture, the richer the country is.
lost of farmers-> more subsistence
where in the world has many wooded areas been deforested to provide beef for hamburgers for fast-food chains in the US
Brazil and Thailand
Where does slash and burn agriculture exist in the world?
Which type of agriculture is primarily found in less developed countries?
small, family farms that grow vegetables, eggs, corn and fruit. intensive subsistence and plantation.
define subsistence farming and indicate where in the world it is still prevalent
subsistence farming-growing enough food to survive,small, family farms that grow vegetables, eggs, corn and fruit.
prevalent in LDC's
Name 3 characteristics of rice production
1. SE Asia, E. India, SE China
2. labor intensive
4. major food staple of Asia
5. not exported
which type of agriculture involves the greatest percentage of people in the world today?
3 characteristics of Extensive agriculture
1. large, extensive areas
2. few inputs, but heavy machinery usage
3. dependent on natural conditions
4. food value crops
what was the most important factor in Von Thunen's model of agricultural land use in 1826?
cost of transportation governs use of land
why did Von Thunen call his book "The Isolated State"?
refers to the self contained situation
in the Von Thunen model ,what does the second concentric circle around the city represent?
What are the concentric circles in order from urban->rural
city, dairy, forest, cattle/grazing land
In the Von Thunen model, what product is most likely to locate closest to urban areas?
market gardening and dairying
Name 4 reasons why the decline in the number of US farms
-higher yields of milk per cow
-less demand for milk products
-increased use of machinery in milk production
-increased size of individual dairy heads
What are two agricultural products prevalent in the Corn Belt?
hogs and cattle
name the top 4 wheat exporting countries...
US, China, Canada and India
What agricultural product does the USA lead in?
which type of agriculture has increased significantly in the US since 1970?
chicken and broiler farming
Mediterranean crops in the US are most likely to be found in which states
California and Oregon
Name 4 crops that are typically found in Mediterranean Agriculture...
olives, grapes, nuts and fruits
List 2 products typically found in Florida:
citrus and sugarcane
List 2 products typically found in the Great Plains:
winter and spring wheat
List 2 products typically found in the Midwest:
corn and soybeans
List 2 products typically found in the northwest:
potatoes, fish and mushrooms
List 2 products typically found in the Southeast
apples, lettuce and tomatoes
What is the major form of agriculture in the Southeast US?
commercial gardening/truck gardening
Name 3 characteristics of plantation agriculture:
capital intensive, specialized mono-cropping, large scale
Name 3 crops of plantation farming that are examples of export-based agriculture:
bananas, cocoa, coconuts, coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rubber and tea
Brazil produces most of it's ethanol from what crop?