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Ch. 31

Influences on eating patterns:

Religious beliefs; food availability and distribution increase cost; economics and market practices

Regional preferences:

Food availability; large groups with some ethnic background

Ethnic heritage, diets and relationships to health and illness

Food preferences may become important during illness when people first come to america-- attempt to eat their native foods-- 2nd generation usually adapts to local food and habits. Food in a healthcare facility may be unacceptable to some people

Black Americans-

Lots of soul food- fish, chicken, pig, greens, sweets. Increase sodium and sugars; common- hypertension, obesity, diabetes and lactose intolerance

Hispanic Americans-

Basic grain- corn; obesity is common; beans, tomatoes. Hot and Cold foods needed to maintain health.


Corn (tortillas)- Basic grain with rice and refried beans. obesity and diabetes are high


Fried foods (atheroscleosis) fish, poultry, eggs, rice, beans, spanish cooking style; main meal @ lunch; decrease milk-- decrease calcium levels

Puerto Rican

White rice, beans, malt beer is given to children and breastfeeding mothers; diet important during illness; may refuse hospital food

Asian AMericans

Rice is a staple (big part)


Rice and soy sauce, stir fry is basic cooking method, moderation is valued; obesity is rare; diet decrease fat-- decrease rate of obesity


Rice and veggies; soy sauce -- increases in sodium; use tofu- good source of protein and calcium; increase use of soy sauce which is increase in sodium-- @ risk for hypertension

Southeast Asian

Rice at every meal; decrease milk after childhood; some consider knives @ table borbonic; seafood major animal protein

Middle Easten Americans

lamb and goat; large amt of fats olives- goat (olive oil); Saudi arabrian, Iraq, Iran: woman are considered subserount to meant and eat only after men and children are fed.

Native Americans

Depends on region; high rate of obesity and alcoholism; increase rates of obesity, diabetes, alcoholism, lactose intoerance

Religious beliefs

Jewish- kosher-- meat and dairy may not be eaten @ some meals

Vegetarian Choice

Vegons- No animal products
Lacto-Vegetarian- Plants foods and dairy products no eggs
Ovo- vegetarians- Plant foods and eggs no dairy
Lacto- ovo vegetarians- Plant foods, dairy, and eggs
Vegetarians have decreased rates of CAD,HTN, NIDDM, obesity

Other sociocultural Factors:
Social Fators:
Emotional Factors:
Food fads and Fallacies:
Economic Conditions:
Physical Conditions:

Social involvement for the client during mealtime: Turn on radio/tv; vase of flowers; eat in common dining room; family visits during meals; visit with them; have them eat together-open curtain.
Puree food-baby food; Depressed- overeat or refuse to eat
Here today and gone tomorrow
If to expensive- we will not buy it!! If pt does not have enough money for food what will you do? Social worker or social services dept.
If your pt is not strong enough to eat- Feed them!

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