Blood Vessels and Lymphatic System Test 3

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Terms in this set (...)

What does Systemic Circulation deal with?
Blood Vessels
What carries blood away from the heart?
Arteries carry oxygenated blood
What carries blood to the heart?
Veins carry deoxygenated blood
What are the 3 parts of the aorta?
-Ascending Aorta
-Arch
-Descending Aorta
What are the branches of the ascending aorta?
-Right Coronary Artery
-Left Coronary Artery
What are the 2 categories of the descending aorta?
-Thoracic
-Abdominal
-Divided by the diaphragm
What are the 3 direct branches of the arch of the aorta?
-Bachiocephalic Trunk
-Left Common Carotid Artery
-Left Subclavian Artery
What are the branches of the brachiocephalic trunk? (Indirect branches of the aorta)
-Right Common Carotid Artery
-Right Subclavian Artery
What are the branches of the subclavian artery?
-Internal Thoracic Artery
-Inferior Thyroid Artery
-Vertebral Artery
Which artery branches superiorly from the Right and Left subclavian arteries?
Vertebral Artery
What is the vertebral artery?
-Branch of the subclavian artery that passes through the opening within the transverse processes of cervical vertebra C6-C1 bypasses C7 known as transverse foramen
-Takes a superior course up to the brain then to the foramen magnum and unite to form the basilar artery
-Supplies blood to the cerebellum, posterior aspect of the cerebral hemisphere and spinal cord
What is the internal thoracic artery?
-A branch of the subclavian artery AKA internal mammary artery
-Supplies blood to the breast and anterior aspect of thoracic cage
-Takes an inferior course of the subclavian artery
-Used as a by-pass vessel in coronary artery by-pass procedures due to its proximity to the heart
What are the branches of the Internal Thoracic Artery?
-Anterior Intercoastal Artery
-Musculopherenic Artery
-Superior epigastric Artery
-Pericardiophrenic Artery
What do the anterior intercostal arteries supply blood to?
-1st Branch of the internal thoracic artery
-Supply blood to the anterior aspect of the thoracic cage to the intercostal spaces 1-6
-Takes a horizontal path
What do the posterior intercostal arteries supply blood to?
-Branch of the THORACIC AORTA
-Supply blood to the posterior aspect of the thoracic cage to the intercostal spaces 1-6
What is the musculophrenic artery?
-2nd Branch of the internal thoracic artery
-Seen laterally and it fills in the rest of the intercostal spaces 7-12
What is the superior epigastric artery?
-3rd Branch of the internal thoracic artery
-Located medially and supplies blood to the anterior part of the abdominal wall and part of the diaphragm
-Continuation of the internal thoracic artery
What is the pericardiophrenic artery?
-4th Branch of the internal thoracic artery
-Seen between the pleura of the lungs and pericardium of the heart
-Supplies blood to the pericardium and thoracic diaphragm
-Located behind the first rib descends along the phrenic nerve and anastomoses with the musculophrenic and inferiorphrenic arteries
What is the course of the Common Carotid Artery?
-Continues superiorly and bifurcates into the internal carotid and external carotid arteries
What are the branches of the Common Carotid Artery?
-Internal Carotid Artery which supplies blood to the brain and orbit
-External Carotid Artery which supplies blood to the neck and face
What are the branches of the external carotid artery?
-Superior thyroid
-Lingual
-Facial
-Maxillary
-Superficial temporal
-They all supply blood to the neck and face
What are the three pulse sites?
-Carotid Arteries (Carotid Triangle)
-Facial Artery (Lower border of mandible and corner of mouth
-Superficial Temporal Artery (Front of ear (Sound of ocean)
What arteries supply the thyroid gland?
-Superior thyroid artery
-Inferior thyroid artery
-Thyroidea ima artery
What is the Superior Thyroid Artery?
-1st Branch of the external carotid artery
-Supplies blood to the superior aspect of the lobes of the thyroid gland
-Takes and inferior course
What is the inferior thyroid artery?
-Branch of the subclavian artery
-Supplies blood to the inferior aspect of the thyroid gland
What is the Thyroidea ima artery?
-Branch of the brachiocephalic trunk
-Present in only 10% of the population
-Supplies blood to the inferior aspect of the thyroid gland
What is the Lingual Artery?
-2nd Branch of the external carotid artery
-Supplies blood to the tongue
What is the facial artery?
-3rd Branch of the external carotid artery
-Supplies inferior and superior aspect of lip
-Travels up the nose and ends at the eye
-Supplies blood to the face
What is the maxillary artery?
-4th Branch of the external carotid artery
-Considered a terminal branch
-Supplies blood to the teeth
-Starts very deep
What is the superficial temporal artery?
-5th Branch of the external carotid artery
-Considered a terminal branch
-Supplies blood to the temporal and scalp
-Another major blood supply to the face
-Starts very deep
What are the terminal arteries of the external carotid artery?
-Maxillary
-Superficial Temporal
-End do not have further branching
What is the middle meningeal artery?
-Branch of the maxillary artery
-Courses inside of skull between dura mater and bone of skull in an epidural position (meaning sitting outside of the dura)
-Superficial to the brain (Dura Mater)
-Deep to the calvaria (Skull Cap)
-Supplies blood to the calvaria and dura mater
-Sitting deep to the pterion
-Rupture with fracture of the skull can cause life threatening epidural hemorrhage
What are the branches of the internal carotid artery?
-Ophthalmic artery
-Anterior Cerebral Artery
-Middle Cerebral Artery
-Posterior Communicating Artery
What is the Ophthalmic Artery?
-Branch of the internal carotid artery
-Supplies blood to the eyes (Orbit)
-Runs next to cranial nerve 2 (Ophthalmic nerve) to area known as ophthalmic canal
What is the Anterior Cerebral Artery?
-Branch of the internal carotid artery
-Supplies blood to the medial aspect of the frontal and parietal lobes of the brain
What is the Middle Cerebral Artery?
-Branch of the internal carotid artery
-Supplies blood to the lateral aspect of the cerebral hemisphere
-Main cause of strokes
What is the Posterior Communicating Artery?
-Branch of the internal carotid artery
-Attaches the internal carotid artery and the basilar vertebral system (Anastomoses)
-("Vertebral-Basilar Pathway")
What arteries are within the Circle of Willis?
-Internal Carotid Artery
-Anterior Cerebral Artery
-Anterior Communicating Artery
-Posterior Cerebral Artery (Not a branch of the internal carotid artery, its a branch of the basilar artery)
-Posterior Communicating Artery
What arteries of the internal carotid artery are NOT part of the circle of willis?
-Middle cerebral artery
-Ophthalmic Artery
What is the internal jugular vein?
-Venous drainage of blood to the head, neck and brain
-Deep vessel close to the internal common carotid
What is the external jugular vein?
-Superficial vein in the neck
-Visible through the skin
-Lies superficial to the sternocleidomastoid muscle
-Drains blood from the posterior aspect of the cranium into the subclavian vein
-Runs next to the common carotid artery
What is the drainage of the brain?
-Venous drainage of the brain
-Drains into dural venous sinuses (2 dura layers-Close to brain and bone) into the internal jugular vein
-Infection of the scalp and face can spread to the dural venous sinuses via the connecting veins and produce meningitis
What artery is between the 1st rib and the insertion of the teres major muscle on the humerus?
Axillary Artery
What artery is between the teres major muscle and the cubital fossa?
Brachial Artery
Which artery supplies most of the blood to the arm?
Brachial Artery
Where does the bifurcation of the brachial artery occur?
At the cubital fossa area
What arteries lie below the cubital fossa?
-Radial Artery (Laterally)
-Ulnar Artery (Medially)
What is the position of the brachial artery on the humerus proximally and distally?
-Proximally medial to the humerus
-Distally anterior to the humerus
What are the boundaries of the cubital fossa?
-Superiorly an imaginary line between the epicondyles of the humerus
-Laterally brachioradialis muscle
-Medially pronator teres muscle
What are the contents of the cubital fossa?
-Laterally biceps tendon
-Middle brachial artery
-Medially median nerve
What is the median cubital vein?
-Superficial to the cubital fossa
-Most frequent site of venipuncture
-Poorly angled venipuncture attempts may puncture the brachial artery
What arteries supply blood to the hand?
-Ulnar Artery (Main contributor to the blood supply of the hand)
-Radial Artery (Artery of choice for obtaining arterial blood samples)
What are the positions of the structures seen within the wrist of the hand?
-Median Nerve (Middle)
-Ulnar Artery (Medially)
-Radial Artery (Laterally)
What is the vinae comitantes?
Two veins accompanying the deep artery on either side of the artery
The deep subclavian vein branches into what two veins?
-Axillary Vein (Medially)
-Cephalic Vein (Laterally)
What is the cephalic vein?
-Laterally/Superficial vein that travels from the forearm to the arm
-Drains into the axillary vein on the upper extremity
What does axillary vein become around the shaft of the humerus?
Basilic Vein
What is the basilic vein?
-Superficial vein that travels from the forearm and a small part of the arm
-Drains into the brachial vein
What are the 3 unpaired arteries of the abdominal aorta?
-Celiac Trunk
-Superior mesenteric artery
-Inferior mesenteric artery
-All supply the abdominal digestive organs
What does the celiac trunk supply blood to?
-Esophagus
-Stomach
-Spleen
-Pancreas
-Liver
-Proximal half of the duodenum
What does the superior mesenteric artery supply blood to?
-Distal half of the duodenum
-Proximal 2/3 of the transverse colon
What does the inferior mesenteric artery supply blood to?
-Distal 1/3 of the transverse colon to the end of the colon
What are the paired branches of the abdominal aorta?
-Inferior Phrenic Arteries (Diaphragm)
-Renal Arteries (Kidneys)
-Gonadal Arteries (Gonads, ovaries and testis)
-Common Iliac Arteries
-Also seen here are the tributaries of the inferior vena cava
What is the pathway of the right gonadal vein to the inferior vena cava?
The right gonadal vein drains directly into the inferior vena cava
What is the pathway of the left gonadal vein to the inferior vena cava?
The left gonadal vein drains directly into the left renal vein that drains into the inferior vena cava
What is the portal system?
-Drainage from the digestive organs into the portal vein
-Venous drainage of the liver is via hepatic veins to the inferior vena cava
-Non digestive abdominal organs (kidneys) drain into the vena cava directly
What are the branches of the portal system?
-Portal Vein (Drains blood from the digestive organs into the liver)
-Superior Mesenteric Vein (Drains blood from the large intestine) (Main tributary)
-Splenic Vein (Drains blood from spleen) (Main Tributary)
-Inferior Mesenteric Vein (Drains blood from the large intestine) (Tributary of the splenic vein)
Where does the abdominal aorta bifurcate?
L4 vertebrae into two common iliac arteries the right and left common iliac arteries
What does each common iliac artery branch into?
-Internal Iliac Arteries
-External Iliac Arteries
What is the internal iliac artery?
-Descends into the pelvis and supplies blood to the pelvic structures, perineum, medial thigh and gluteal regions
-Busy within the pelvis (A lot of branches)
What is the external iliac artery?
-Supplies blood inferiorly to the lower extremities
-Crosses below the inguinal ligament and leaves the pelvic area and enters the thigh as a femoral artery
What is the femoral artery?
-Deep to the inguinal ligament
-Main source of blood supply to the thigh anteriorly and posteriorly (Deep femoral artery)
-Lies superficial to the adductor longus muscle
-At the lower 3rd of the thigh the femoral artery passes through the adductor hiatus to enter the back of the thigh
What is the popliteal artery?
-The femoral artery after passing through the adductor hiatus
-Supplies blood to the posterior aspect of the leg
What are the branches of the popliteal artery?
-Anterior tibial artery (Laterally) supplies blood to the anterior portion of the leg (Will become the dorsalis pedis artery)
-Posterior tibial artery (Medially) supplies blood to the posterior aspect of the leg
What are the boundaries of the femoral triangle?
-Inguinal ligament (Superiorly)
-Sartorius muscle (Laterally)
-Adductor longus muscle (Medially)
What are the contents of the femoral triangle?
-Femoral nerve (Laterally)
-Femoral Artery (Middle) (Site of insertion of a catheter for a coronary artery visualization and angioplasty)
-Femoral Vein (Medially) (Site for venipuncture in infants)
-Site for lymph nodes
What is the artery of the foot below the malleolus?
Dorsalis pedis artery
What is the dorsalis pedis artery?
-Continuation of the anterior tibial artery
-Supplies blood to the foot
-Site of pedal pulse
-Located inferior to the medial malleolus
Where does the posterior tibial artery run in reference to the medial malleolus?
Posterior and inferior to the medial malleolus
What is the superficial vein of the thigh?
Great saphenous vein
What is the course of the great saphenous vein?
Medial side of dorsal venous arch to the saphenous opening where the vein drains into the femoral vein
What is the course of the small saphenous vein?
Lateral side of the dorsal venous arch then drains into the posterior aspect of the leg into the popliteal vein
What is the lymphatic system?
-Component of both the cardiovascular and circulatory system that allows for the collection, transportation and distribution of lymph
What is lymph?
A watery fluid that contains lymphatic cells
What is lymphocytes?
-Cellular component of lymph which include:
-T cells and B Cells
What are lymph vessels?
Network of vessels and capillaries that transport lymph and lymphocytes
What are lymphoid organs?
Produce lymphocytes (Lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, spleen and bone marrow)
What are the 2 ducts of the lymphatic system?
-Right lymphatic duct (Collects fluid from the right side of the head, neck, right upper limb and the right half of the thoracic cavity and dumps its contents into the right subclavian vein)
-Thoracic duct (Collects fluid from the majority portion of the body, starts as a sac in the abdomen called the cisterna chyli and continues superiorly to dump its contents into the area where the left subclavian and internal jugular veins unite)