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37 terms

Life Span Development

STUDY
PLAY
Prenatal Development
The stage of development from conception to birth
Embryo
the developing human organism
Fetus
name given to a human embryo after 3 months
Placenta
An organ that nourishes the embryo and the fetus
Teratogens
Toxic Agents that cross the placenta and result in birth defects
Critical Period
A time when certain internal and external influences have a major effect on development; at other periods, the same influences will have little or no effect
Neonates
New born babies
Rooting Reflex
The baby's tendency to turn its head when something touches its cheek
Sucking Reflex
The baby's tendency to suck on anything that enters its mouth
Swallowing Reflex
Enables the baby to swallow milk and other liquids without choking
Grasping Reflex
The tendency to cling viperously to an adults finger or any to any object placed in their hands
Stepping Reflex
Very young babies take what looks like walking steps if they are held upright with there feet just touching a flat surface
Developmental Norms
The average ages at which skills are achieved such as movement, grasping, crawling and walking
Object Permanence
An awareness that objects continue toe exist even when out of sight
Piaget's Sensory Motor Stage
Birth to 2 years; main activities involve sucking and grasping; must achieve object permanence and mental representations
Piaget's Preoperational Stage
representing things with words and images; use intuitive rather than logical reasoning
Piaget's Concrete-Operational Stage
Children become more flexible in their thinking
Piaget's Formal-operational Stage
Can now think logically and about hypothetical statements, can judge consequences, increases with age.
Imprinting
The tendency in certain species to follow the first moving thing (usually its mother) it sees after it is born or hatched
Autonomy
Sense of independence; a desire to be controlled by others
Solitary Play
A child engaged in a recreational activity alone; the earliest form of play
Parallel Play
Two children playing side by side at similar activities but playing little or no attention to each other; the earliest kind of social interaction between toddlers
Cooperative Play
Two or more children engaged in play that requires interaction
Gender Identity
A little girl's knowledge hat she is a girl, and a little boy's knowledge that he is a bay
Gender Constancy
The realization that gender does not change with age
Gender-Role Awareness
Knowledge of what behavior is appropriate for each gender
Puberty
The onset of sexual maturation, with accompanying physical development
Menarche
The first menstrual period
Imaginary Audience
Elkind's term for adolescent's delusion that they are constantly being observed by others.
Personal Fable
Elkind's term for adolescent's delusion that they are unique, very important, and invulnerable.
Identity Formation
Erickson's term for the development of a stable sense of self necessary to make the transition from dependence on others to dependence on oneself
Identity Crisis
A period of intense self-examination and decision making; part of the process of identity formation
Mid-life Crisis
A time when adults discover they no longer feel fulfilled in their jobs or personal lives and attempt to make a decisive shift in their career or lifestyle.
Mid-Life Transition
According to levinson, a process whereby adults assess the past and formulate new goals for the future
Menopause
The time in a woman's life when menstruation ceases
Alzheimer's Disease
A neurological disorder, most commonly found in late adulthood, characterized by progressive losses in memory and cognitive and changes in personality.
5 Stages of Dying
1)Denial
2)Anger
3)Bargaining
4)Depression
5) Acceptance