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Prenatal Development

The stage of development from conception to birth


the developing human organism


name given to a human embryo after 3 months


An organ that nourishes the embryo and the fetus


Toxic Agents that cross the placenta and result in birth defects

Critical Period

A time when certain internal and external influences have a major effect on development; at other periods, the same influences will have little or no effect


New born babies

Rooting Reflex

The baby's tendency to turn its head when something touches its cheek

Sucking Reflex

The baby's tendency to suck on anything that enters its mouth

Swallowing Reflex

Enables the baby to swallow milk and other liquids without choking

Grasping Reflex

The tendency to cling viperously to an adults finger or any to any object placed in their hands

Stepping Reflex

Very young babies take what looks like walking steps if they are held upright with there feet just touching a flat surface

Developmental Norms

The average ages at which skills are achieved such as movement, grasping, crawling and walking

Object Permanence

An awareness that objects continue toe exist even when out of sight

Piaget's Sensory Motor Stage

Birth to 2 years; main activities involve sucking and grasping; must achieve object permanence and mental representations

Piaget's Preoperational Stage

representing things with words and images; use intuitive rather than logical reasoning

Piaget's Concrete-Operational Stage

Children become more flexible in their thinking

Piaget's Formal-operational Stage

Can now think logically and about hypothetical statements, can judge consequences, increases with age.


The tendency in certain species to follow the first moving thing (usually its mother) it sees after it is born or hatched


Sense of independence; a desire to be controlled by others

Solitary Play

A child engaged in a recreational activity alone; the earliest form of play

Parallel Play

Two children playing side by side at similar activities but playing little or no attention to each other; the earliest kind of social interaction between toddlers

Cooperative Play

Two or more children engaged in play that requires interaction

Gender Identity

A little girl's knowledge hat she is a girl, and a little boy's knowledge that he is a bay

Gender Constancy

The realization that gender does not change with age

Gender-Role Awareness

Knowledge of what behavior is appropriate for each gender


The onset of sexual maturation, with accompanying physical development


The first menstrual period

Imaginary Audience

Elkind's term for adolescent's delusion that they are constantly being observed by others.

Personal Fable

Elkind's term for adolescent's delusion that they are unique, very important, and invulnerable.

Identity Formation

Erickson's term for the development of a stable sense of self necessary to make the transition from dependence on others to dependence on oneself

Identity Crisis

A period of intense self-examination and decision making; part of the process of identity formation

Mid-life Crisis

A time when adults discover they no longer feel fulfilled in their jobs or personal lives and attempt to make a decisive shift in their career or lifestyle.

Mid-Life Transition

According to levinson, a process whereby adults assess the past and formulate new goals for the future


The time in a woman's life when menstruation ceases

Alzheimer's Disease

A neurological disorder, most commonly found in late adulthood, characterized by progressive losses in memory and cognitive and changes in personality.

5 Stages of Dying

5) Acceptance

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