How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

49 terms

Sociology Exam 4

STUDY
PLAY
Because the sociology of medicine focuses on how cultural beliefs, lifestyle and social class influence health and illness, the sociology of medicine is a[n] ________ field of sociology.
applied
The perception of health varies considerably among societies of the world. The definition of what constitutes health and illness is most defined by which variables?
culture of society
What was the contribution Talcott Parsons made as a sociologist to the understanding of health and medicine?
he introduced the concept of the sick role
There is a major exam scheduled in today's sociology class, but Donald has a serious case of the flu. Donald's professor excused him from the exam. Donald then made an appointment with the health center, and spent the next three days in bed. This is an example of ________ in practice.
the sick role
Of the following nations, which one has the highest infant mortality rate?
United States
Payment to a physician in exchange for diagnosis and treatment is called ________.
Fee-for-service
In the United States, doctors often convince women to have unnecessary hysterectomies because the uterus and ovaries are "potentially disease-producing" organs. What does this practice of convincing women to have unnecessary surgery suggest?
Women need to be aware of gender bias in medicine
Many of the physical signs of aging such as balding, wrinkles, and a sagging chin or buttocks are now treated by physicians. This process of turning something into a medical matter is termed ________.
medicalization
In what year did death from AIDS peak in the United States?
1995
The area of the world most devastated by the AIDS virus is ________.
sub-Saharan Africa
Which of the following jobs is most related to the concept of disabling environment?
lumberjack
In the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, what did the medical staff at Tuskegee University do?
left men diagnosed with syphillis go untreated
In 1918, 500,000 Americans and 20 to 40 million people worldwide died in an epidemic caused by which of the following diseases?
the flu
What is alternative medicine?
non-traditional medicine such as acupuncture & meditation
What is the Malthus Theorem?
The idea that population grows geometrically and the food supply only increases arithmetically
From the beginning of time, at what period did the world's population to reach its first billion people?
1800 AD
What variables are most often included on a population pyramid?
sex, percentage of population by sex, and age categories
What term do demographers use to refer to the number of children an average woman bears?
Fertility rate
A central city that is surrounded by smaller cities and suburbs is referred to as a ________.
metropolis
To qualify as a megacity, a city's population must exceed ________.
10 million
Today, approximately what percentage of Americans live in cities?
79%
Jim and Milly are one of ten couples who have decided to buy and restore an older house in a deteriorated urban neighborhood. Jim and Milly are part of a movement referred to as _____.
gentrification
What term describes clusters of buildings and services near the intersection of major highways where shopping malls, hotels, park offices, and apartment complexes are found?
Edge Cities
The model of urban growth that views the city as a series of somewhat circular zones occurring outward from its center is called the ________ model.
concentric zone
The process of one group of people displacing a group whose racial, ethnic, or social class characteristics differ from their own is called ________.
invasion-succession
A situation where there are more bystanders but a tendency for fewer of the bystanders to help in an emergency is referred to as ________.
diffusion of responsibility
Actions, such as lynchings, performed by a group of people who bypass the usual norms governing their behavior and do something unusual is referred to as ________.
collective behavior
Gustave LeBon said people in a crowd had the tendency to feel, think, and act extraordinarily which included a sense of anonymity, less accountability, and invincibility. What term did LeBon use to refer to this phenomenon?
Collective mind
The term Robert Park used to explain the back and forth communications between members of a crowd during unrest was ________.
circular reaction
Richard Berk hypothesized that the likelihood of being involved in crowd behavior will increase as more rewards are anticipated with fewer costs. This is what Berk called _______.
minimax strategy
Which participants in a crowd are most important for setting the crowd on a particular course of action?
the ego-involved
What does research show as the most common background condition of urban riots?
Frustration and anger brought on by feelings of deprivation
When large numbers of people become intensely concerned, even fearful, about some behavior and their fear is out of proportion to any supposed danger it is referred to as a ____.
moral panics
What is the major difference between fad and fashion?
The life span of the activity (i.e. fads fade quickly)
A large group of people who organize to resist or promote social change, such as the organized effort of African Americans to gain civil rights in the 1960s is classified as a ____.
social movement
The National Rifle Association has protested all legal rulings limiting firearm ownership by responsible citizens. Such a social movement that resists social change is called a[n] ________ social movement.
Reactive
Social movements that seek to change particular aspects of individuals, such as the Women's Christian Temperance Union are best qualified as which type of social movement?
Alternative
Selene is a member of PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals). Based on the typologies of social movements, Selene would be considered a member of a[n] ________ social movement.
reformative
A social movement qualifying as a transformative social movement that is based on the prophecy of coming calamity is called a ________ social movement.
millenarian
A social movement that emphasizes world change rather than changing a condition in a specific society, such as the global women's movement, is called a transnational social movement or a ________.
new social movement
In choosing the tactics to use in calling attention to their goal, what do leaders of a social movement need to consider the most?
the public (?)
Since the United States became highly bureaucratized and industrialized many individuals in this society feel isolated. According to your text, this example best represents the ________ theory.
mass society
When people join social movements based on their evaluations of what they think they should have compared with what others have they are employing which of the following theories to explain the movement?
relative deprivation theory
A crucial factor that enables social movements to make it past the initial unrest and agitation stage is ________.
resource mobilization
The stage in which a social movement has developed a bureaucracy and has formed a hierarchy of officers and leadership is the ________ stage.
Institutionalization stage
In which stage of a social movement is a division of labor is set up?
Organization stage
According to sociologists Alfred and Elizabeth Lee, there are seven basic techniques that are used by propagandists. One technique is to have candidates pose for photographers in jeans and a work shirt or having lunch at a fast-food restaurant. This is an example of the ________ strategy.
"plain folks"
Originally, propaganda referred to a committee of the Roman Catholic church whose assignment was the care of foreign missions; today it usually refers to information that ________.
is one-sided and distorts reality
Who are the gatekeepers to social movements who play a very important role in the movement's success?
The Mass Media