36 terms

Baking Ingredients

Identify baking ingredients and their functions
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sanding sugar
A coarse-grained sweetener used to decorate baked items such as blueberry muffins.
fermentation
The process by which yeast acts on carbohydrates and changes them into carbon dioxide and alcohol.
leavening
The prodution of gases in baked products. Creates increased volume or rising.
chemical leavener
Baking soda, baking powder, and ammonium carbonate are examples of this kind of leavener.
high ratio
Baking recipes with a high percentage of sugar.
shortening
Provides tenderness, flakiness, and flavor to baked goods. Breaks up the gluten strands.
hydrogenated shortening
Fat that has undergone the hydrogenation process in which it becomes semi-solid at room temperature. Preferred when using the creaming method.
emulsified shortening
Hydrogenated shortening that is used for high ratio formulas.
brown sugar
Sugar that is refined at lower temperatures than granulated sugar. The depth of the brown color indicates the quantity of molasses that remains.
confectioner's or powdered sugar
Available in several grades (XX, 4X, 6X, and 10X). It is made by grinding granulated sugar.
physical leaveners
Leavening that occurs naturally due to the presence of moisture in a formula. Air and steam are examples.
organic leaveners
Gas is produced by the presence of living organisms. Yeast, for example.
yeast
A single celled living organism that multiplies by a process called budding.
cake
The type of flour that is considered the weakest.
all purpose flour
Flour that has a moderate gluten content and is commonly used by home cooks.
sodium bicarbonate
The chemical name for baking soda.
creaming
The process of beating fat and sugar together to incorporate air.
gluten
The protein in flour that, when combined with a liquid, gives strength and structure to baked goods.
foaming
The process of beating eggs (whole or whites), with or without sugar to incorporate air.
baking powder
A combination of baking soda, an acid (cream of tartar) to react with it and a buffer such as cornstarch.
salt
More than just a flavor enhancer, this ingredient strengthens gluten structure and inhibits yeast growth.
invert
Sugars, such as those in honey, that resist crystallizing and stay smooth.
bread flour
Flour that has a high percentage of gluten.
whole wheat
Flour that is milled from the entire kernel of wheat, including the bran layer.
honey
A natural syrup produced by bees. Contains invert sugar and acid.
molasses
Concentrated sugar cane juice. Contains large amounts of sucrose and acid.
sulfured molasses
A by-product of the sugar refining process.
corn syrup
A liquid sweetener that is made by converting cornstarch into simpler sugar compounds by the use of enzymes.
endosperm
The starchy portion of a wheat kernel that is milled into flour.
germ
The portion of a wheat kernel that becomes a new plant.
gelatin
A protein processed from the bones, fat, and connective tissue of animals. Used as a gelling and stabilizing agent for liquids and foams.
denaturing
Changes in the structure of proteins brought about by the presence of heat or changes in pH..
lard
Soft,white, semisolid fat obtained by rendering the fatty tissue of a hog's belly
sugar
A sweetener refined from sugarcane and beets. Acts as food for yeast in the fermentation process.
pectin
A natural substance derived from fruit that is used as a gelling agent.
tapioca
A starch from the tropical cassava root that is used as a thickener in pudding and fruit pies.