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Chapter 11 combo
Terms in this set (79)
The river that carved the Grand Canyon over millions of years by washing billions of tons of soil and rock from its riverbed.
Deep ravine located in Northwest Arizona, formed from millions of years of erosion.
Process by which soil and sediment are transported from one location to another.
Continuous movement of water from the ocean to the atmosphere, to the land and back to the ocean.
Process that occurs when water vapor cools and changes back to liquid water. Water loses energy during condensation.
Process that takes place when water on the surfaces is heated by the Sun and changes to water vapor. Water gains energy during evaporation.
Rain, snow, sleet or hail that falls from clouds.
The downward movement of water through pores and other spaces in soil due to gravity.
Precipitation that flows over land into rivers and streams, this water later enters the oceans.
A network of streams or rivers that drains an area of its runoff.
A stream that flows into a lake or into a larger stream or river.
Also known as a drainage basin, it is the area of land that is drained by a river system.
Mississippi River Watershed
The largest watershed in the United States.
An area of higher ground that seperates watersheds.
The divide created by the Rocky Mountains, seperates water that flows into the Pacific Ocean from water that flows into the Atlantic Ocean.
The path that a river or stream follows
When streams become longer and wider.
The measure of the change in elevation over a certain distance.
The amount of water that is carried by a river or stream in a given amount of time.
The materials that are carried by a river or stream.
Large materials, such as pebbles or boulders that are bounced along the bottom of a river or stream.
Smaller rocks and soil that can be carried throughout a river or streams water, makes the water look muddy.
Materials that are carried in solution, such as Sodium or Calcium.
A river that flows quickly because of its steep gradient, it erodes its channel deeper rather than wider, channel is usually narrow and straight with many falls or rapids, have very few tributaries.
Gradient is not as steep as a youthful river, erodes channel wider rather than deeper, few falls or rapids, fed by many tributaries giving it a higher discharge.
River with a low gradient and little erosive energy, deposits along channel cause wide floodplains and many bends.
Rivers found where land has been raised by tectonic activity causing a steeper gradient. This allows the river to flow more quickly and erode more deeply.
Steplike formations that form on both sides of a stream valley as the result of rejuvenation.
The place where a river or stream begins
The place where a river or stream ends.
The process in which material is laid down or dropped.
The rock and soil that is deposited by a river or stream.
Heavy minerals deposited in places where the river current slows down.
A fan shaped mass of material deposited at the mouth of a river or stream.
A fan shaped mass of material depsoited by a river or stream when the slope of the land decreases sharply.
An area along a river or stream that forms from sediment deposited when the river or stream overflows its banks.
A barrier that can redirect the flow of water.
A buildup of sediment deposited along the channel of a river to help keep the river inside of its banks.
The water located within the rocks beneath the Earth's surface.
Zone of Aeration
The upper zone of soil through which rain water passes.
Zone of Saturation
Area of soil further underground in which water collects.
Located at the boundary between the zones of aeration and saturation, it is the uppermost point of groundwater.
A layer of rock that stores and allows the flow of groundwater.
The percentage of open space between particles in a rock layer.
A rock layers ability to allow water to pass through.
A rock or rock layer that stops the flow of water.
A force that causes moving objects to slow down.
The ground surface where water enters an aquifer.
Occurs when the water table reaches the surface and water flows out from the ground.
A sloping layer of permeable rock that is sandwiched between two layers of impermeable rock.
The top layer of impermeable rock in a na artesian formation.
A spring whose water flows from a crack in the cap rock of an artesian formation.
A human made hole that is dug deeper than the level of the water table.
A weak acid contained in some groundwater that can dissolve rock.
An open space created underground when groundwater dissolves rock layers.
Sharp icicle shaped features that form on cave ceilings.
Cones shaped features that form on cave floors as water drips from above.
Forms when the water drips long enough for stalactites and stalagmites to join.
Circular depression that forms on the surface when the roof of a cave collapses.
The introduction of harmful substances into the environment.
Pollution that comes from one specific site.
Pollution that comes from many sources.
The oxygen that is dissolved in water and is used by fish and other aquatic organisms.
An increase in water temperature as a result of human activities.
Naturally occuring compounds of nitrogen and oxygen that can harm organisms if levels elevate.
Water's ability to netralize acid.
Sewage Treatment Plant
Facilities that clean the waste materials out of water.
First dirty water is passed through a large screen to catch large solid objects, then water is placed in a large tank where smaller particles, or sludge, can be filtered out.
First the water is sent to an aeration tank where it is mixed with oxygen and bacteria. The bacteria feed on any waste and use the oxygen. The water is then sent to a settling tank where chlorine is added to disinfect the water.
A large underground tank used to clean the water from a singl household.
A network of buried pipes that distribute the water from a septic tank.
The largest known aquifer in North America, runs beneath the ground of 8 states and provides water for 1/5 of the croplands in the United States.
A system that delivers small amounts of water directly to plant roots helps to conserve water.
An area that contains unique types of soil, is home to plants adapted to the wet environment, and contains water all year or certain times during the year.
A wetland in which soil consists mainly of decomposed plant material called peat or muck.
A forested wetland in which trees and bushes are dominant plants.
A wetland that generally forms at the mouth of a river or in areas where there is poor drainage
Organisms that soon could become extinct.
Organisms that could soon become endangered.
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