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DNA & RNA
Terms in this set (67)
Process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria
Kind of virus that infects bacteria
List the conclusions that Griffith and Avery drew from their experiments.
DNA is a transforming agent
What conclusion did Hershey and Chase draw from their experiments?
They drew the conclusion that DNA was a genetic material found in genes, not just viruses and bacteria, but in all living cells.
What are the three key roles of DNA?
The roles of DNA are to store, copy and transmit the genetic information of in a cell.
If the DNA in the genes, which are in the chromosomes, aren't separated carefully the daughter cells could end up having different amounts of genes, making them non-identical to one another.
Process of copying DNA prior to cell division
Principle enzyme involved in DNA replication
Repetitive DNA at the end of a eukaryotic chromosome
How is DNA replicated?
The process, which occurs during late interphase of the cell cycle, ensures that each resulting cell has the same complete set of DNA molecules. During replication, the DNA molecule separates into two strands and then produces two new complementary strands following the rules of base pairing. Each strand of the double helix of DNA serves as a template, or model, for the new strand.
What is the role of DNA polymerase in DNA replication?
The DNA polymerase is an enzyme that joins individual nucleotides to produce a new strand of DNA.
Where and in what form is prokaryotic DNA found?
Prokaryotic DNA is found in the cytoplasm of the cell and is a single circular molecule.
Where is eukaryotic DNA found?
Eukaryotic DNA is found in the nucleus packaged into chromosomes.
What could be the result of damaged DNA being replicated?
there can be a change in DNA abase sequences that could alter certain genetics.
Differences and similarities in DNA replication in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.
Eukaryote:Replication begins at dozens to hundreds of points
Prokaryote:Begin from single point
Both:Proceeds into two directions until entire chromosome is copied
Chemical components of DNA
Nucleotides(adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine)
Why are hydrogen bonds so essential to the structure of DNA?
Hydrogen bonds are essential to the structures of DNA, because the hydrogen bonds can be easily unzipped allowing a perfect fit for nitrogen bases to pair and connect.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
Type of RNA that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into Proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
Carries each amino acid to a ribosome during protein synthesis
Synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template
Enzyme that links together the growing chain of RNA nucleotides urging transcription using a DNA strand as a template
Specific region of a gene here RNA polymerase can bind and begin transcription
Sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein
Expressed sequence of DNA;codes for a protein
Describe the three main differences of DNA &RNA
1) the sugar in RNA is ribose, however the sugar in DNA is Deoxyribose
2)RNA is generally single stranded and not double-stranded
3)instead of thymine it contains Uracil
Three main types of RNA
what do they do?
TRNA carries amino acids to the ribosome for assembly and is found in the nucleus and cytoplasm.
MRNA copies DNA's coded message, carries it to the ribosome and is found in the cytoplasm.
Ribosomal RNA combines with protein to form ribosomes
How does a cell interpret the genetic code?
A cell reads the genetic code is read three "letters" at a time, so that each "word" is three bases long and corresponds to a single amino acid.
A group of three nucleotide bases in mRNA that specify a particular amino acid to be incorporated into a protein.
A group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to the three bases of a codon of mRNA
Long chain of amino acids that makes proteins
Collection of codons of mRNA, each of which directs the incorporation of a particular amino acid into a protein during protein synthesis
Process by which the sequence of bases of an mRNA is converted into the sequence of amino acids of a protein
Process by which a gene produces it's product and the product carries out its function
What happens during translation?
The decoding of of an mRNA message into a protein
How is protein synthesis different from DNA replication?
First off protein synthesis uses ribosomes as its sugar and not deoxyribose.
The RNA is a single helix while DNA is a double helix. Also, the enzyme of Helicase isn't used in protein synthesis nor are there leading and lagging strands. Lastly. DNA replication all takes place in the nucleus but protein synthesis takes place in the nucleus and the cytoplasm.
Why is the genetic code considered universal?
The genetic code is considered universal because it base pairing sequencing rules apply to all organisms. Furthermore, it replicates in the same way in all organisms.
mutation in which a single base pair in DNA has been changed
mutation that shifts the "reading frame" of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
Change in the genetic material of the cell
Condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes
Chemical or physical agents in the environment hat interact with DNA and may cause a mutation
What are three affects mutations can have on genes?
A)1. Dramatic effect and change of the protein structure.
2.dramatic change if the gene activity.
3.uncontrolled growth of cells causing cancer
This mutation involves changes in the number or structure of chromosomes.
Can change the location and number of genes on chromosomes.
What are the four types of chromosome mutation?
In prokaryotes, a whole group of adjacent genes that share a common operator and promoter and are transcribed into a single mRNA
How is the lac operon regulated?
When lactose is not present, the lac genes are turned off by proteins that bind to DNA and block transcription.
Short DNA region, adjacent to the promoter of a prokaryotic operon, that binds repressor proteins responsible for controlling the rate of transcription of the operon
How are most eukaryotic genes controlled?
controlled individually and have more complex regulatory sequences than those of the lac repressor system.
RNA interference (RNAi)
Introduction of double-stranded RNA into a cell to inhibit gene expression
Process in which cells become specialized in structure and function
A class of regulatory genes that determine the identity of body parts and regions in an animal embryo. Mutations in these genes can transform one body part into another
A group of homeotic genes clustered together that determine the head to tail identity of body parts in animals. All how genes contain the homeobox DNA sequence.
The homeobox is a sequence of approximately 130 base pairs, found in many homeotic genes that regulate development. Genes containing this sequence are known as homeobox genes, and they code for transcription factors, protein that bind to DNA, and they also regulate the expression of other genes.
How are gene regulation in prokaryotic and eukaryotic similar? How are they different?
A short region of DNA called the TATA Box, about 25 or 30 base pairs before the start of a gene, containing the sequence TATATA or TATAAA.
What genes control cell differentiation during development?
Homeotic, Homeobox and Hox Genes.
How are the accuracy of DNA and mRNA codes assured?
What is located at the end of each tRNA molecule?
Anti-codon and Amino acid
Where must an mRNA attach before production?
How many bases are needed to specify an mRNA codon?
Disease causing agent
Griffith discovered that bacteria can be transformed.
Avery, McCarthy, and McLeod result
Discovered DNA is the transforming agent
Avery, McCarthy, and McLeod experiment
Hershey and Chase experiment
Used viruses, bacteria phages in their experiment
Radioactive host cells
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