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Vocabulary words for MTEL ELL/ESL

adaptation of content material for ELLs

graphic organizers, rewrite dense texts, books-on-tape, jigsaw reading, highlighting concepts for newcomers so they do not have to read the whole thing, marginal notes, outlines to help students take notes, teacher-created study guides that go with textbooks

adaptation of reading instruction

explicitly teach vocabulary, grouped reading, multiple assessments, culturally relavant instruction, age-appropriate instruction, teach phonemic awarness and phonics

advantages of reading assesment

frequent leveling to scaffold students to higher levels

approaches for teaching writing instruction

building background, modeling text type, guided practice and independent writing

Basic Inventory of Natural Language (BINL)

oral language test for tracking language development and progress; tests oral language proficiency

Bernstein Sociolinguistic Theory

language is part of class and people use certain codes when speaking


Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills: surface skills students pick up in 1-2 years of being around native L2 speakers

BIlingual Syntax Measure II

tests oral skills for grade 3-12; can be used for placement and language development for IEPs


(Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency) ability to function in academic L2; takes 5-7 years

Chomsky Language Acquisition Theory

Chomsky says that children are born with a knowledge of the principles of the grammatical structure of all languages, and this inborn knowledge explains the success and speed with which they learn language.

cognitive processes needed to internalize language rules and vocabulary in L2

memorization; categorization and generalization (categorize and generalize vocabulary); metacognition

coherence (discourse feature)

how topic is organized as a whole

Cohesion (discourse feature)

how sentences connect structurally (ellipsis, conjunctions, etc.)

communicative competence

ability to understand appropriate behaviors and language for various situations

communicative language approach

focus on students communicating naturally in second language; conversation instead of grammar; teaching strategies: role play, games, interviews, negotiation

comprehensible input

way of speaking and explaining that the students can understand (modeling, visuals, hands-on activities, demonstrations, gestures,body language

Dialect diversity in English

ELLs learn more than 1 standard English, many dialects

Dialogue Journal

journal kept by two people, usually student and adult

effective strategies for oral skills

frequent testing and surveys, speaking and vocabulary games for practice, flashcards, commands, visuals

explicit instruction in academic language and vocabulary

KWL charts, vocab development, student experiences,illustrations, webbing

factors that affect L2 acquisition

age, motivation/attitude towards L2, learning style, environmental factors, personality, status of L1 and culture in L2

factors that affect L2 reading development

literacy and literate background in L1, learning disability, academic experience, cultural background knowledge

formal elements of written English

narrative, poetic, expository, persuasive

formal methods to assess oral language

MELA-O, Woodcock Munoz Language, IDEA

Gersten SEI Theory

Early Exit Bilingual: some initial instruction in L1, primarily for reading but also for clarification, instructions in L1 are phased out rapidly

Hymes Sociolinguistic Theory

there is a connection between society, culture and language


The IDEA Oral Language Proficiency Test assesses four basic areas of English oral language proficiency: Vocabulary, Comprehension, Syntax, and Verbal Expression which includes Articulation; testing for mainstreaming

informal methods to assess oral language

interviews, oral reports, summaries, descriptions, presentations, dialogue journals

informal writing assessments

teacher feedback, formative assessments (analytical-micro analysis and holistic analysis)

integrated language teaching

reading, writing and speaking are integrated; content and lanugage instruction are integrated; collaborative and supportive environment

integration of content and language objectives

practice strategies for marking up the text, review objective several times in class

interlanguage development

the emerging language system person creates based on L1 and L2 knowledge to communicate in L2

interpretation of oral language results

assess student in both language and see if the problem is just in on language, look for educational history and family history, pysch exam in L1

interpretations and use of assessment information

affects placement, focus on mechanics and content strategies, future lessons

knowledge of writing process for ELLs

brainstorming, outlining, drafting, revising and editing; teaching revision can be hard for students to rearrange and rephrase ideas

Krashen 2nd Language Acquisition Theory

requires natural interactions (not grammar drills), students will pick up grammar rules naturally by being immersed in L2; need to interact with language w/o worrying about being corrected

Labov Sociolinguistic Theory

created the term of ebonics, African American English has its own rules and should be respected

Lambert SEI Theory

Transitional Bilingual: initially instruction is 90% L1 then shifts towards English

Language Assessment Battery

tests speaking, reading listening and writing, used to place ESL students

Language Experience Approach

approach to writing instruction from personal experience; stories about personal experiences are written by teacher and read together until learner associates written form of word with spoken; can also be a group activity restating stories read by teacher

language transfer

student applies knowledge of L1 to L2


total stock of morphemes in a language


basic reading and writing skills


smallest unit of meaning in language (e.g: act, cat, pre)

natural approach

natural genuine learning situations where they use both conscious understanding of a language and subconscious (take cues from visual and commands)


smallest unit of sound in language (sss in snake)

Piaget Language Acquisition Theory

children think before they speak; speaking just reflects this thinking; language is a way for children to represent their world

Pinker Language Acquisition Theory

we are predisposed to learn language; language is a human instinct

promotion of content area learning

using visuals, explicitly teaching cognitive strategies, permitting students to use dictionaries

Ramirez SEI Theory

Late Exit Bilingual: students continue to have 40% of instruction in L1 even after classified fluent in English

relationship and transfer of 1st language reading skills

rely on students'phonemic awareness in 1st language and make explicit the differences, effect on pronunciation and decoding strategies, mostly positive and helpful

role of 1st language on 2nd language

more academic understanding you have in L1, more you can apply to L2; cognitive development in L1 at home helps L2

Rossel and Baker SEI Theory

SEI: students of diff. L1s together; teachers use English and aids to focus on content rather than language

selection of purposeful writing activities

writing about personal experiences, writing for a purpose, KWL< word wall, text reconstruction, sequencing sentences, cloze reading and writing, jumbled sentences

semantics (discourse feature)

words with connotative meanings (dual meanings)

sheltered strategies and reading intervention approaches

1) students should have access to early literacy programs in L1 2) early assessments in L1 for learning disabilities and literacy level 3) provide grade-level content in English by giving simple directions 4) comprehensible input 5) make connections and use clear baackground 6) teach reading strategies and focus on vocabulary 7) word webs and KWL charts

Stages of Language Acquisition in L1

needs interaction (nativisit vs. nurture)

Stages of Language Acquisition in L2

silence, nonverbal, understands more than can produce; early speech production to speech emergence to intermediate fluency

strategies for teaching reading for literate ELLs

connections between reading strategies, teach alphabetic and phonemic differences, use read alouds, partner reading and modeling, and explicit instruction of vocabulary

strategies for teaching reading for non-literate ELLs

teach sight words, language orally, introduce written words, provide clues to remind, teach direction of reading,

strategies for teaching subject matter and for developing ELL CALP

1) providing comprehensible input 2) providing explicit instruction 3) integrating content and language objectives 4) supporting students' use of English to discuss and consider subject matter content

student discussion of subject matter content

group discussion, hands-on, engaging, partners, independently, students can apply content and language objectives, 4 corners, send a problem, jigsaw


system by which sounds and words are organized

use of pragmatics (discourse feature)

changing the word order changes the meaning

Vygotsky Language Acquisition Theory

zone of proximal development: teach students one step from their mastery zone; students need interaction to learn a language; language does not exist in a vacuum (sociohistorial context)

Woodcock Munoz Language Survey

tests CALP in Spanish and English; provide information on student's cognitive and academic language proficiency; individually administered; in both English and Spanish; test for ESL to determine bilingual eligibility; can also be used to identify LDs

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