Chapter 3

Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 234
Terms in this set (234)
cytoplasmprovides storage and work areas for the cell; the work and storage elements of the cell, called organelles, are the ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, mitochondria, lysosomes, and centriolesribosomesmake enzymes and other proteins; nicknamed "protein factories"endoplasmic reticulum (ER)carries proteins and other substances through the cytoplasmgolgi apparatuschemically processes the molecules from the endoplasmic reticulum and then packages them into vesicles; nicknamed "chemical processing and packaging center"mitochondriainvolved in cellular metabolism and respiration; provide the principal source of cellular energy and are the place where complex, energy-releasing chemical reactions occur continuously; nicknamed "power plants"lysosomescontain enzymes that can digest food compounds; nicknamed "digestive bags"centriolesplay an important role in cell reproductionciliahairlike processes that project from epithelial cells; help propel mucus, dust particles, and other foreign substances from the respiratory tractflagellum"tail" of the sperm than enables the sperm to "swim" or more toward the ovumnucleuscontrols every organelle (little organ) in the cytoplasm; contains the genetic matter necessary for cell reproduction as well as control over activity within the cell's cytoplasm; responsible for the cell's metabolism, growth, and reproductionstem cellsprecursors of all body cells- capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods - unspecialized - can give rise to specialized cell typesthree general properties of stem cells- embryos - adult tissues - umbilical cord bloodprimary sources of stem cellsembryonic cellunspecialized cell that can turn itself into any type of tissuefrozen invitro (in a test tube) fertilized embryoswhat are embryonic stem cells primarily derived fromadult stem cellmore specialized cell found in many kinds of tissues, such as bone marrow, skin, and the liverumbilical cord cellrich source of precursors of mature blood cells; obtained from cord blood at the time of birthtissuegrouping of similar cells that together perform specialized functionsepithelial tissueappears as sheetlike arrangements of cells, sometimes several layers thick, that form the outer surfaces of the body and line the body cavities and the principal tubes and passageways leading to the exteriorepithelial cellscells for the secreting portions of glands and their ducts and are important parts of certain sense organs- protection - sensation - secretion - absorption - excretion - diffusionsix main functions of epithelial tissueconnective tissuemost widespread and abundant of the body tissues; forms the supporting network for the organs of the body, sheaths the muscles, and connects muscles to bones and bones to joints.bonedense form of connective tissue- skeletal - smooth - cardiacthree types of muscle tissueskeletal muscleinvoluntary muscle that is striated in appearance and is anchored by tendons to the bonesmooth muscleinvoluntary muscle found within the walls of organs and structures such as the esophagus, stomach, intestines, bronchi, uterus, urethra, bladder, blood vessels, and the arrector pili in the skinsmooth muscle is not under conscious control and is under the control of the autonomic nervous systemhow does smooth muscle differ from skeletal musclecardiac muscleinvoluntary muscle and is a specialized form of striated tissue found only in the heart; under control of the autonomic nervous systemnerve tissueconsists of nerve cells (neurons) and supporting. cells called neuroglia; has properties of excitability and conductivity, and functions to control and coordinate the activities of the bodyorgansmultiple different tissues serving a common purpose or function; examples include the brain, skin, or heartfrontal planecoronal planesagittal planemedian planetransverse planehorizontal planeanterior (ventral)toward the frontposterior (dorsal)toward the backsuperior (cranial)toward the heartinferior (caudal)toward the tallproximalcloser to the point or origin (generally the trunk)distalfarther away from the point of origin (generally the trunk)medialcloser to the middle of the body or a body part; on the inner side oflateralfarther away from the midline of the body or a body part; on the outer side ofsuperficialcloser to the surfacedeepfarther below the surfacesuperiorabove, in an upward direction, toward the headsuper-upper, aboveinferior (infer/o)below or in a downward direction; more toward the feet or tailanterior (anter/o)in front of or before, the front side of the bodyposterior (poster/o)toward the back, back side of the bodycephalic (cephal/o)pertaining to the head; superior in positioncaudal (caud/o)pertaining to the tail; inferior in positionmedial (medi/o)nearest the midline or middlelateral (later/o)to the side, away from the middleproximal (promim/o)nearest the point of attachment or near the point of origindistal (dist/o)away from the point of attachment or far from the point of origincavityhallow space containing body organsventral cavityhollow portion of the human torso extending from the neck to the pelvis and containing the heart and the organs of respiration, digestion, reproduction, and elimination- thoracic - abdominal - pelvicthree distinct areas of the ventral cavitypericardial cavityspace containing the heartpleural cavitiesspaces surrounding each lungabdominal cavityspace below the diaphragm, commonly referred to as the belly; contains the stomach, intestines, and other organs of the digestionpelvic cavityspace formed by the bones of the pelvic area; contains the organs of reproduction and eliminationcranial cavitythe space in the skull containing the brainspinal cavitythe space within the bony spinal column that contains the spinal cord and the spinal fluidabdominoplevic cavitycombination of the abdominal and pelvic cavities; it is divided into nine regionsright hypochondriacupper right region at the level of the ninth rib cartilageleft hypochondriacupper left region at the level of the ninth rib cartilageepigastricregion over the stomachright lumbarright middle lateral regionleft lumbarleft middle lateral regionumbilicalin the center, between the right and left lumbar regions; at the navelright iliac (inguinal)right lower lateral regionleft iliac (inguinal)left lower lateral region lower lateral regionhypogastriclower middle region below the navelRight Upper Quadrant (RUQ)contains the right lobe of the liver, gallbladder, part of the pancreas, and part of the small and large intestinesLeft Upper Quadrant (LUQ)contains the left lobe of the liver, stomach, spleen, part of the pancreas, and part of the small and large intestinesRight Lower Quadrant (RLQ)contains part of the small and large intestines, appendix, right ovary, right fallopian tube, right ureterLeft Lower Quadrant (LLQ)contains part of the small and large intestines, left ovary, left fallopian tube, left uretertrunk (torso)an anatomical term for the central part of the human body, not including the head and extremities (arms and legs); includes the chest, the back, the shoulders, and the abdomenabdomin/oabdomen (belly)tars/oankle (tarsus)brach/i, brachi/oarmposter/obackoste/obonesmast/o, mamm/obreastbucc/ocheekthorac/ochestaur/i, ot/oearcubit/o, olecran/oelbowophthalm/o, ocul/o, opt/oeyedactyl/ofingerpod/ofootgingiv/ogumschir/ohand (manus)cephal/oheadcardi/oheartisch/ihip (ischium, coxa)crur/oleghepat/oliverpulm/o, pulmon/o, pneum/o, pneumon/olungsor/omouthmuscul/o, my/omusclesumbilic/o, omphal/onavelcervic/oneckneur/onervesrhin/o, nas/onosecost/oribsderm/a, dermat/o, derm/o, cutane/oskincrani/oskullgastr/ostomachdent/i, dent/otoothtempor/otemplesfermor/othigh bonepharyng/othroatlingu/o, gloss/otonguecarp/owrist (carpus)pathogenicpertaining to producing diseasesexually transmitted infectionsSTIhuman immunodeficiency virusHIVWest Nile virusWNVarthropodsinvertebrate animals (mosquitoes, ticks, mites, fleas, sand fleas, live) that can transmit diseases to humans and animals. They function as hematophagous vectors that transmit diseases through their bite. Only female mosquitoes bite to get a blood meal for their growing eggs.blood to eat pertaining tohematophagous hemat/o- phag -oushelminthswormlike animals; broadly classified into tape-worms, flukes, and roundworms, these parasites often live in the gastrointestinal tract of their hosts, but may also burrow into other organs, where they induce physiological damagemycosesfungal infectionsprion infectionsdisease caused by a protein-like infectious particle (prion); prions cause a number of diseases in animals and humans known as spongiform encephalopathies (brain diseases), in which the brain becomes damaged with holes; ex: mad cow disease in cattleprotozoalpertaining to single-celled parasitic organisms (protozoa) with flexible membranes and the ability ti move; they can cause amebic dysentery, sleeping sickness, and malariarickettsiosesinfection with rickettsiae, the most common being Rocky Mountain spotted fever and epidemic typhusspirochetalpertaining to spirochetes, especially infections caused by them, such as syphiliszoonosesdiseases that are communicable (transmissible) from animals to humans; ex: viruses, bacteria, parasites, and mycosesadip/ofatandr/omananter/otoward the frontbi/olifecaud/otailcyt/ocelldist/oaway from the point of origindors/obackwardfiltrat/oto strain throughfus/oto pourhist/otissuehydr/owaterinfer/obelowinguin/ogroinkary/ocell's nucleuslater/osidemedi/otoward the middleorgan/oorganpath/odiseasephen/oto showphysi/onatureproxim/onear the point of originsomat/obodysystem/ocomposite, wholetroph/onourishment, developmentventr/onear or on the belly side of the bodyviscer/obody organshorizonthorizoninternwithintropicplaceadip (fat) -ose (pertaining toadiposeana- (up/apart) -tomy (incision)anatomyandr (man) -oid (resemble)androidapexpointed end of a cone-shaped structurebaselower part or foundation of a structurebi- (two) later (side) -al (pertaining tobilateralbi/o (life) -logy (study of)biologycentermiddle or midpoint of a bodychromo- (color) -some (body)chromosomecyt/o (cell) -logy (study of)cytologyde- (down, away from) hydr (water) -ate (use, action)dehydratedif- (apart) fus (to pour) -ion (process)diffusionecto- (outside) -morph (form, shape)ectomorphendo- (within) -morph (form, shape)endomorphfiltrat (to strain through) -ion (process)filtrationgenehereditary unit that transmits and determines one's characteristics or hereditary traitshist/o (tissue) -logy (study of)histologyhomeo- (similar, same control) -stasis (stop, stand still)homeostasishorizont (horizon) -al (pertaining to)horizontalhuman genomecomplete set of genes and chromosomes tucked inside each of the body's trillions of cellsinguin (groin) -al (pertaining to)inguinalintern (within) -al (pertaining to)internalkary/o (cell's nucleus) -genesis (formation, produce)karyogenesislater (side) -al (pertaining to)lateralmedi (toward the middle) -al (pertaining to)medialmeso- (middle) -morph (form, shape)mesomorphorgan (organ) -ic (pertaining to)organicpath/o (disease) -logy (study of)pathologyper- (through) fus (to pour) -ion (process)perfusionphen/o (to show) -type (type)phenotypephysi/o (nature) -logy (study of)physiologyproto- (first) -plasm (a thing formed, plasma)protoplasmsomat/o (body) troph (nourishment, development) -ic (pertaining to)somatotrophicsystem (composite, whole) -ic (pertaining to)systemictropic (place) -al (pertaining to)tropicaluni- (one) later (side) -al (pertaining to)unilateralventr (near the belly side) -al (pertaining to)ventralvertextop or highest point; top or crown of the headviscer (body organs) -al (pertaining to)visceraldrugchemical substance that can alter or modify the functions of a living organismAnatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC)used to classify the active ingredients of drugs according to the organ or system on which they act and their therapeutic, pharmacological, and chemical properties; controlled by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre (WHOCC) for Drug Statistics Methodology- stimulants - depressants - hallucinogens - opioidsfour drug classifications- therapeutic use - diagnostic use - curative use - replacement use - preventive or prophylactic usefive medical uses for drugstherapeutic useused in the treatment of a disease or condition, such as an allergy, to relieve the symptoms or to sustain the patient until other measures are instituteddiagnostic usecertain drugs are used in conjugation with radiology to allow the physician to pinpoint the location of a disease processcurative usecertain drugs, such as antibiotics, kill or remove the causative agent of a diseasereplacement usecertain drugs, such as hormones and vitamins, are used to replace or supplement substances normally found in the bodypreventive or prophylactic usecertain drugs, such as immunizing agents, are used to ward off or lessen the severity of a diseaseadverse drug reactionADRadverse drug eventADEabdomenAbd/abdanatomy and physiologyA & PAnatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification SystemATCbody mass indexBMIblood pressureBPcalcium oxideCaOCenters for Disease Control and PreventionCDCglucoseC6H12O6Drug Enforcement AdministrationDEAFood and Drug AdministrationFDAgastointestinalGINational Institutes of HealthNIHozoneO3over the counterOTCtuberculosisTBWorld Health OrganizationWHO