AP HuG Chapter 1 Vocab

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Terms in this set (86)
Choropleth MapA map in which areas are shaded or patterned in proportion to the measurement of the variableCitizen ScienceScientific research by amateur scientistsClimateThe long-term average weather condition at a particular locationConcentrationThe extent of a feature's spread over a given areaConnectionThe relationships among people and objects across the barrier of spaceConservationThe sustainable management of a natural resource to meet human needsContagious DiffusionThe rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a populationCoordinated Universal Time (UTC)Informally Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The time in the zone encompassing the prime meridian, or 0° longitudeCultural EcologyA geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationshipsCultural LandscapeAn approach to geography that emphasizes the relationships among social and physical phenomena in a particular study areaCultureThe body of customary beliefs, material traits, and social forms that together constitutes the distinct tradition of a group of peopleDensityThe frequency with which something exists within a given unit of areaDiffusionThe process by which a feature spreads from one place to another over timeDistance DecayThe diminished importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its originDistributionThe arrangement of something across Earth's surfaceDot Distribution MapA map that depicts data that consists of discrete observations. Each dot represents a predetermined number of observations, which could be one or many.EcologyThe scientific study of ecosystemsEcosystemA group of living organisms and the abiotic spheres with which they interactEnvironment DeterminismA nineteenth- and early twentieth-century approach to the study of geography which argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities.Expansion DiffusionThe spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process.Formal Region (Uniform Region)An area in which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristicsFunctional Region (Nodal Region)An area organized around a node or focal pointGeographic Information Science (GIScience)Analysis of data about Earth acquired via satellite and other electronic info technologiesGeographic Information System (GIS)A computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data.GeotaggingIdentification and storage of a piece of information by its precise latitude and longitude coordinatesGlobal Positioning System (GPS)A system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers.GlobalizationActions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.Graduated Symbol MapA map that displays symbols that change in size according to the value of the variable.HearthA place from which an innovation originatesHierarchical DiffusionThe spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or placesHumanistic GeographyAn approach to human geography that emphasizes the different ways that individuals form ideas about place and give those places symbolic meanings.HydrosphereAll of the water on and near Earth's surfaceInternational Date LineAn arc that for the most part follows 180° longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. When you cross the International Date Line heading east (toward America), the clock moves back 24 hours, or one entire day. When you go west (toward Asia), the calendar moves ahead one day.Isoline MapA map that connects places of a particular value by linesLatitudeThe numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator (0°)LitosphereEarth's crust and a portion of upper mantle directly below the crustLocationThe position of anything on Earth's surface.LongitudeThe numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian (0°)MapA two-dimensional, or flat, representation of Earth's surface or a portion of it.Map ScaleThe relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth's surface.MashupA map that overlays data from one source on top of a map provided by a mapping serviceMemeContagious diffusion through the Internet or social mediaMental MapA representation of a portion of Earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located.MeridianAn arc drawn on a map between the North and South poles.NetworkA chain of communication that connects placesNonrenewable ResourceA resource that is produced in nature more slowly than it is consumed by humansParallelA circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians.Participatory GIS (PGIS)Community-based mapping, representing local knowledge and information.PatternThe geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area.PhotogrammetryThe science of taking measurements of Earth's surface from photographs.PlaceA specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular characteristicPolderLand created by the Dutch by draining water from an area.PossibilismThe theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.Poststructuralist GeographyGeographic approach that examines how the powerful in a society dominate, or seek to control, less powerful groups, how the dominated groups occupy space, and confrontations that result from the dominationPreservationThe maintenance of resources in their present condition, with as little human impact as possiblePrime MeridianThe meridian, designated at 0° longitude, which passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England.ProjectionA system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat mapRegionAn area distinguished by one or more distinctive characteristicsRelocation DiffusionThe spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to anotherRemote SensingThe acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods.Renewable ResourceA resource that is produced in nature more rapidly than it is consumed by humansResourceA substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use.ScaleThe relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a wholeSiteThe physical character of a placeSituation (Relative Location)The location of a place relative to another placeSpaceThe physical gap or interval between two objectsSpace-Time CompressionThe reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systemsSpatial AssociationThe relationship between the distribution of one feature and the distribution of another feature.Stimulus DiffusionThe spread of an underlying principleSustainabilityThe use of Earth's renewable and nonrenewable natural resources in ways that do not constrain resource use in the future.SyncretismThe combining of elements of two groups into a new cultural featureToponymThe name given to a portion of Earth's surface.Transnational CorporationA company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located.Uneven DevelopmentThe increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy.Vernacular Region (or perceptual region)An area that people believe to exists as part of their cultural identity.Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI)Creation and dissemination of geographic data contributed voluntarily and for free by individuals