Biology Chapter 2: Basic Chemistry

What is matter?
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Where are protons and neutrons located?Inside the nucleusWhere are electrons located?Outside the nucleusWhat are electron shells?The average location or energy level of an electron in an atomWhat is the atomic number?Tells us the number of protons and electronsWhat is mass number?The sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleusWhat is the atomic mass of protons and neutrons?1 amuWhat are isotopes?Atoms with the same number of protons and electrons but different number of neutronsWho is Dmitri Mendeleev?Father of the periodic tableWhat are periods on the periodic table?Horizontal rows (left to right), every atom's atomic number in a period increases by oneWhat are groups on the periodic table?Vertical columns (up and down), all atoms in a group share similar characteristics, namely type of chemical bonds formedWhat are radioactive isotopes?Isotopes that decay spontaneously, giving off particles and energyWhat is carbon dating?A scientific method of determining the age of an artifact, to determine age you compare the amount of 14C to 12CWhat is an example of low level radioactive isotopes?Tracer in medical imagingWhat are effects of high levels of radiation?Can harm cells, damage DNA, and in turn cause cancerHow many electrons can each orbital hold?1st shell can hold 2, 2nd shell can hold 8What is the outermost electron shell called?Valence shellWhat are molecules?A union or 2 or more atoms of the same element, also the smallest part of the compound that retains the properties of the compoundWhat is a compound?A substance having atoms of 2 or more different elements in a fixed ratioWhat is a chemical formula?Tells you the number of each kind of atom in a moleculeWhat is ionic bonding?This happens when compounds are held together by attraction of opposite charges, an atom becomes charged when they accepted or give an electronWhat is covalent bonding?This results when 2 atoms share electrons, and in doing so their valence shells are filledWhat are nonpolar covalent bonds?Equal sharing of electronsWhat are polar covalent bonds?Unequal sharing of electronsWhat are hydrogen bonds?Weak bonds that form by a slightly positive hydrogen atom of one molecule and a slightly negative atom of another molecule or between the same parts of the same moleculeWhere are hydrogen bonds found?Not just in water, but also in DNAWhat are the properties of water?High Heat Capacity, High Heat of Evaporation, Solvent, Cohesive and Adhesive, Frozen is Less Dense than LiquidWhat is a solvent?The substance in which the solute dissolvesWhy is water a good solvent?Because of its polarity and ability to form hydrogen bondsWhat do cohesion and adhesion allow water to do?Cohesion and adhesion of water allow blood to fill the tubular vessels of the cardiovascular systemWhy is frozen water less dense?When water freezes the molecule expand, this makes frozen water less dense the liquid water, why ice floatsWhat are acids?When water freezes the molecule expand, this makes frozen water less dense the liquid water, low hydrogen ion concentration, below 7 phWhat are bases?Substances that either take up hydrogen ions or release hydroxide ions, high hydrogen ion concentrations, above 7 phWhat is a buffer?A substance that minimizes changes in pHWhat is the normal ph of blood?7.4 when healthyWhat are the 4 states of matter?Solid, Liquid, Gas, PlasmaWhat are elements?