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42 terms

BIOL 210 Ch. 11 Quiz

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bacterial endospores
microbial form that has the highest resistance to physical and chemical controls
sterilization
the process that destroys or removes all microorganisms and microbial forms including bacterial endospores on inanimate objects is
disinfection
the use of a physical or chemical process to destroy vegetative pathogens is
antisepsis
the use of chemical agents directly on exposed body surfaces to destroy or inhibit vegetative pathogens is
sporicide
type of control agent that would be used to achieve sterility
vegetative bacteria and fungi
the easiest microbial forms to kill or inhibit are
sanitization
a cleansing method that mechanically removes microbes and other debris to reduce contamination is
constant
cells in a culture die at a __ rate
cytoplasm
the __ is not a target of antimicrobial agents
surfactants
work by disrupting membrane integrity
x-rays
__ cannot denature microbial proteins
moist heat
__ does not affect microbial nucleic acids
hydrogen peroxide
physical agent that does not control microbial growth
less
dry heat is __ efficient than moist heat
121C at 15 psi for 15 minutes
the minimum sterilizing conditions in a steam autoclave are
thermal death time
the shortest time required to kill all the microbes in a sample at a specified temperature is called the
thermal death point
the lowest temperature needed to kill all microbes in 10 minutes is the
pasteurization
__ reduces the number of vegetative forms
ultra high temperature
a method for sterilizing milk, called __ treatment, uses 134C for 1 to 2 seconds
tyndallization
intermittent sterilization, which uses three days of lower temperature team for short periods of time is also called
lactobacillus
__ is not a primary target of milk pasteurization
lyophilization
vials of microorganisms that undergo the freeze-drying process called __ will remain preserved and viable for years
desiccation
removal of moisture by dehydration is called
ultraviolet
__ radiation excites atoms to a higher energy state within molecules such as DNA that then leads to the formation of pyrimidine dimers
gamma rays and x rays
electrons are ejected from atoms in cells when organisms are exposed to
OR air, cured meats, surgical gloves, human tissues
items that are typically irradiated in order to kill microbes include:
HEPA filters
__ are used to remove microbes from air
filtration
__ is a control method that removes microorganisms rather than inhibiting or killing them
betadine
iodophors include __
sterilization
destruction of all microbial life
disinfection
destroys most microbial life, reducing contamination on inanimate surfaces
antisepsis
disinfection of a living surface
decontamination
the mechanical removal of most microbes
sanitization
any cleansing technique that mechanically removes microorganisms as well as other debris to reduce contamination to safe levels
degerming
scrubbing the skin or immersing in chemicals or both
asepsis
any practice that prevents the entry of infectious agents into sterile tissues and thus prevent infections
bactericide
a chemical that destroys bacteria except for endospores
germicide
chemical agent that kills microorganisms
bacteriostasis
any process or agent that inhibits bacterial growth
sepsis
the growth of microorganisms in the blood and other tissues
cide
to kill
stasis or static
to stop