Major Supreme Court Cases
For AP Government test
Terms in this set (22)
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Established Judicial Review; "midnight judges;" John Marshall; power of the supreme court.
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
Established national supremacy; established implied powers; use of elastic clause; state unable to tax fed. institution; John Marshall; "the power to tax involves the power to destroy."
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
The Supreme Court case that upheld a Louisiana segregation law on the theory that as long as the accommodations between the racially segregated facilities were equal, the equal protection clause was not violated. The Court's ruling effectively established the constitutionality of racial segregation and the notion of "separate but equal."
Schenck v. United States (1919)
Oliver Wendell Holmes; clear and present danger test; shouting "fire" in a crowded theater; limits on speech, esp. in wartime.
Gitlow v. New York (1925)
Established precedent of federalizing the Bill of Rights (applying them to the states); states cannot deny freedom of speech-- protected through due process clause of Amendment 14.
Brown v. Board, 1st (1954)
School segregation unconstitutional; segregation psychologically damaging to blacks; overturned separate but equal; use of 14th Amendment; judicial activism of Warren Court; unanimous decision.
Brown v. Board 2nd (1955)
Ordered schools to desegregate "with all due and deliberate speed."
Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
Established exclusionary rule; illegally obtained evidence cannot be used in court; judicial activism.
Engel v. Vitale (1962)
Prohibited state-sponsored recitation of prayer in public schools by virtue of Amendment I's establishment clause and the 14th Amendment's due process clause; judicial activism.
Baker v. Carr (1962)
"One man, one vote." Ordered state legislative districts to be as near equal as possible in population. Judicial activism.
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
Ordered states to provide lawyers for those unable to afford them in criminal proceedings. Judicial activism in criminal rights.
Griswald v. Connecticut (1965)
Established right of privacy through 4th and 5th Amendments. Set a precedent for Roe v. Wade.
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
Established Miranda warnings of counsel and silence. Must be given before questioning. Judicial activism in criminal rights.
Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971)
Established 3-part test to determine if establishment clause is violated: Nonsecular purpose, advances/inhibits religion, excessive entanglement with government.
Roe v. Wade (1973)
Established national abortion guidelines; trimester guidelines: no state interference in 1st, state may regulate to protect health of mother in 2nd, state may regulate to protect health of unborn child in 3rd. Inferred from right of privacy established in Griswald v. Connecticut.
Buckley v. Valeo (1976)
1st Amendment protects campaign spending; legislatures can limit contributions, but not how much one spends of his own money on campaigns.
U.C. Regents v. Bakke (1978)
Alan Bakke and UC Davis Medical School; strict quotas unconstitutional, but states may allow race to be taken into account as ONE factor in admissions decisions. Bakke admitted.
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1987)
More leeway for states in regulating abortion, though no overturning of Roe v. Wade.
Texas v. Johnson (1989)
Struck down a Texas law that banned flag burning, which the Court declared was protected by the 1st Amendment.
Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992)
States can regulate abortion, but not with regulations that impose "undue burden" upon women; did not overturn Roe v. Wade, but gave states more leeway in regulating abortion (e.g., 24-hour waiting period, parental consent for minors).
United States v. Lopez (1995)
Gun Free School Zones Act exceeded Congress's authority to regulate interstate commerce.
Lawrence v. Texas (2003)
Using right of privacy, struck down Texas law banning sodomy.