They became used very little but were still there. The active routes were not used as much and became dirty and old fashioned.
What happened to the silk roads after the decline of the Han and Roman empires?
He viewed it as good and that the Christians were becoming free and everyone else was dying.
What was St. Cyprian's view of the epidemic of 251 C.E. ?
Roman Bishops/ 4 patriarchs-- Bishops-- members of church
What was true of the early hierarchy of Christian church?
Who was emperor who allowed Christians to practice their faith openly for the first time in the Roman empire ?
They pressured Romans to move and they took over their land. They also destroyed their cities and killed many people.
How did the invading Huns contributed to the fall of the western Roman empire?
tried to promote dualist views. The views were Good vs. Evil, Light vs. Dark, and Spirit vs. Matter
What did Manicheism promote?
It blended Christianity, Zoroastrianism, and Buddhism
Mani, the founder of Manichaeism, promoted a syncretic blend of what religions?
China, Rome, Africa, Egypt, India, Anatolia
The monsoon winds in the Indian Ocean tied together whom in a maritime trade route?
Find allies to fight against the Xiongnu
In 139 B.C.E., the Chinese emperor dispatched Zhang Qian to central Asia to do what?
The information that Zhang Qian brought back encouraged Han Wudi to destroy the Xiongnu and lay the foundations for the
Which desert was one of the most dangerous spots along the silk roads? Its name means "he who enters does not come back out."?
The land route of the silk roads ran from the Han capital of _Chang'an_ to the Mediterranean port of
The expanding influence of India was shown by the fact that Southeast Asian kings called themselves
A group of Christians who followed Nestorius and believed in the human part of Jesus more than the devine par
Who were the Nestorians?
Devout Manichaeans, who abstained from marriage and sexual relations and who devoted their lives to prayer and fasting, were called the
Third (40 mil)
By around the year 600 C.E., the ravages of epidemic diseases had caused both the Mediterranean and Chinese populations to fall by at least a
Where the northern invaders took over China and fused with them and became one
What does the term sinicization refers to?
They were the four officials of the Roman empire who emerged after Diocletian split the empire. They reported to Diocletian and were given lieutenants to help them.
Who were the tetrarchs?
In 476 C.E., the Germanic leader Odovacer brought an end to the western half of the Roman Empire when he overthrew whom?
After the collapse of the western half of the Roman Empire, imperial authority survived for another thousand years in the
In 380 C.E., Christianity was proclaimed the official religion of the Roman Empire by emperor
St. Augustine made Christian thought more appealing to the educated classes by harmonizing it with
as the only sources of established and recognized authority, the popes and bishops organized governments and defenses for their communities as Roman imperial authority crumbled
In the end, why did the popes win supreme control of the church?
It was feared because of it's Persian influence and that it would influence others to follow the same route. Also that it pressured other religions.
Why was Manichaeism feared by imperial states?
Silk Roads and Monsoon Winds
What two developments c.100-500 C.E. spurred the development of long distance trade.
Han or Greeks
The Roman concept of "paterfamilias" as a means of providing order in society was closely tied to what other civilization's patriarchal structure?
Going to Court
About 55 C.E., Paul of Tarsus traveled from a port in Palestine to Rome for what reason?
In an effort to alleviate social tensions what group was allowed to elect two and then later ten tribunes?
During the Punic Wars, the Romans first fought the Carthaginians over the most important source of grain in the western Mediterranean. Where was it?
A protective screen made by Roman troops holding their shields above their heads to protect themselves.
What was the testudo ?
A Roman general who tried to take Rome and restore it to it's state of appreciation. He tried to take it over and placed the city under military occupation and hunted down political enemies. He died in 86 BCE.
Who was Gaius Marius?
The leader, supported by the Roman aristocrats, who led a slaughter of more than ten thousand of his political enemies was
Cleopatra and Mark Antony
Augustus was able to reunify the empire after defeating his main rivals, who were
By the second century C.E., how much of the total population of the Roman Empire was represented by slaves
The Roman thinker Marcus Tullius Cicero was best associated with what Hellenistic school of thought?
A god of light, truth, and honor, the central figure of the cult of Mithraism but probably of Persian origin. He was also associated with merchants and the protection of warriors.
Who was Mithras ?