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Chapter 11-12 Study Guide

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They became used very little but were still there. The active routes were not used as much and became dirty and old fashioned.
What happened to the silk roads after the decline of the Han and Roman empires?
He viewed it as good and that the Christians were becoming free and everyone else was dying.
What was St. Cyprian's view of the epidemic of 251 C.E. ?
Roman Bishops/ 4 patriarchs-- Bishops-- members of church
What was true of the early hierarchy of Christian church?
Constantine
Who was emperor who allowed Christians to practice their faith openly for the first time in the Roman empire ?
They pressured Romans to move and they took over their land. They also destroyed their cities and killed many people.
How did the invading Huns contributed to the fall of the western Roman empire?
tried to promote dualist views. The views were Good vs. Evil, Light vs. Dark, and Spirit vs. Matter
Ascetic lifestyle.
What did Manicheism promote?
It blended Christianity, Zoroastrianism, and Buddhism
Mani, the founder of Manichaeism, promoted a syncretic blend of what religions?
China, Rome, Africa, Egypt, India, Anatolia
The monsoon winds in the Indian Ocean tied together whom in a maritime trade route?
Find allies to fight against the Xiongnu
In 139 B.C.E., the Chinese emperor dispatched Zhang Qian to central Asia to do what?
merchants
Who were the principal agents for the spread of Buddhism over the silk roads?
Han Empire
The information that Zhang Qian brought back encouraged Han Wudi to destroy the Xiongnu and lay the foundations for the
Berenice
What was the most important port on the Red Sea, constructed by the Ptolemics?
Chang'an
The easternmost point of the silk roads was the Han capita
Monsoon Winds
What was a key element in establishing trade across the Indian Ocean?
Taklamakan
Which desert was one of the most dangerous spots along the silk roads? Its name means "he who enters does not come back out."?
Antioch/Tyre
The land route of the silk roads ran from the Han capital of _Chang'an_ to the Mediterranean port of
China
In the ancient world, the main producer of silk was
Rajas
The expanding influence of India was shown by the fact that Southeast Asian kings called themselves
Gregory the Wonderworker
Christianity was carried to Anatolia during the third century C.E. by
A group of Christians who followed Nestorius and believed in the human part of Jesus more than the devine par
Who were the Nestorians?
"elect"
Devout Manichaeans, who abstained from marriage and sexual relations and who devoted their lives to prayer and fasting, were called the
Marcus Aurelius
In 180 C.E. smallpox claimed the life of the Roman emperor
Third (40 mil)
By around the year 600 C.E., the ravages of epidemic diseases had caused both the Mediterranean and Chinese populations to fall by at least a
Where the northern invaders took over China and fused with them and became one
What does the term sinicization refers to?
Diocletian
The Roman Empire was divided into two parts by whom?
They were the four officials of the Roman empire who emerged after Diocletian split the empire. They reported to Diocletian and were given lieutenants to help them.
Who were the tetrarchs?
Alaric
The leader of the Visigoths who sacked Rome in 410 C.E. was
Romulus Augustolus
In 476 C.E., the Germanic leader Odovacer brought an end to the western half of the Roman Empire when he overthrew whom?
Eastern half
After the collapse of the western half of the Roman Empire, imperial authority survived for another thousand years in the
Theodecius
In 380 C.E., Christianity was proclaimed the official religion of the Roman Empire by emperor
platonic thought
St. Augustine made Christian thought more appealing to the educated classes by harmonizing it with
as the only sources of established and recognized authority, the popes and bishops organized governments and defenses for their communities as Roman imperial authority crumbled
In the end, why did the popes win supreme control of the church?
It was feared because of it's Persian influence and that it would influence others to follow the same route. Also that it pressured other religions.
Why was Manichaeism feared by imperial states?
Internal Problems. Land distribution
What was the key reason for the collapse of the Han Dynasty?
Silk Roads and Monsoon Winds
What two developments c.100-500 C.E. spurred the development of long distance trade.
Han or Greeks
The Roman concept of "paterfamilias" as a means of providing order in society was closely tied to what other civilization's patriarchal structure?
Going to Court
About 55 C.E., Paul of Tarsus traveled from a port in Palestine to Rome for what reason?
Kings
The society of the Etruscans was ruled by
Tacticus
Who wrote on the corruption in the early Roman empire?
He was a roman citizen and appealed his case.
Why was Paul's case transferred to Rome ?
Etruscans
During its early history, Rome was dominated by the
plesbians
In an effort to alleviate social tensions what group was allowed to elect two and then later ten tribunes?
Sparta
The Roman policy of toleration and respect for conquered peoples was most similar to the
Sicily
During the Punic Wars, the Romans first fought the Carthaginians over the most important source of grain in the western Mediterranean. Where was it?
A protective screen made by Roman troops holding their shields above their heads to protect themselves.
What was the testudo ?
Large farms with many slaves to work on them.
What were Latifundia ?
Tiberius Gracchus
The tribune whose call for land reform led to his assassination in 132 B.C.E. was
A Roman general who tried to take Rome and restore it to it's state of appreciation. He tried to take it over and placed the city under military occupation and hunted down political enemies. He died in 86 BCE.
Who was Gaius Marius?
Sulla
The leader, supported by the Roman aristocrats, who led a slaughter of more than ten thousand of his political enemies was
favored liberal policies and social reform
In regard to political philosophy, Julius Caesar favored
Cleopatra and Mark Antony
Augustus was able to reunify the empire after defeating his main rivals, who were
Golden Age/ Pax Romana
The reign of Augustus inaugurated a period known as the
Twelve Tables
What were the foundations of Roman law ?
Mediterranean Sea or "Our Sea"
When the Romans used the words mare nostrum they referred to
1/3
By the second century C.E., how much of the total population of the Roman Empire was represented by slaves
Mars
Zeus was to Jupiter as Ares was to
Stoicism
The Roman thinker Marcus Tullius Cicero was best associated with what Hellenistic school of thought?
A god of light, truth, and honor, the central figure of the cult of Mithraism but probably of Persian origin. He was also associated with merchants and the protection of warriors.
Who was Mithras ?
Jews of Palestine
From 66 to 70 C.E. the Romans fought a bloody war with the
The anointed one
"Christ," which meant
Split into 3 Kingdoms
What happen immediately after the dissolution of the Han empire in 220 C.E., in China?