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Science
Physics
Physics: Space-Time CH 15 (packet)
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Terms in this set (24)
special theory of relativity
Einstein's _______ describes how time is affected by motion in space at constant velocity and how mass and energy are related.
space; time
From the viewpoint of special relativity, you travel through a combination of ______ and ______.
When you stand still, then all your traveling is through time. When you travel through space at the speed of light, all your traveling would be through space, with no travel through time.
According to the special theory of relativity, how do standing still and traveling at the speed of light differ?
true
True or False: Whenever we move through space, we to some degree alter our rate of moving into the future, which is called time dilation.
postulate
What is another name for a fundamental assumption?
A, B, D
A. All motion is relative.
B. All frames of reference are arbitrary.
D. A spaceship's speed must be measured relative to other objects.
Select the letter of each sentence that is true about motion and frames of reference.
A. All motion is relative.
B. All frames of reference are arbitrary.
C. A spaceship can measure its speed relative to empty space.
D. A spaceship's speed must be measured relative to other objects.
All the laws of nature are the same in all uniformly moving frames of reference.
What is the first postulate of special relativity?
300,000 km/s
Einstein concluded that if an observer could travel close to the speed of light, he would measure the light as moving away from him at ________.
The speed of light in empty space will always have the same value regardless of the motion of the source or the motion of the observer.
What is the second postulate of special relativity?
same speed
A person on a moving train shines a flashlight in the direction that the train is moving. Does an observer standing at rest outside of the train measure the speed of light as faster, slower, or the same speed as when the train is not moving?
C
What variable is used to indicate the value of the speed of light for all observers?
space; time
The ratio of _______ to _______ for light is the same for all who measure it.
true
True or False: Time dilation occurs ever so slightly for everyday speeds but significantly for speeds approaching the speed of light.
The light flash appear to move
vertically
.
A moving space ship contains a light clock. How do the flashes of light from the light clock appear to move to an observer inside the spaceship?
They observe the flash moving along a
diagonal
path.
A moving space ship contains a light clock. An observer is at rest with respect to the space ship. How do the flashes of light from the light clock appear to move to the observer?
300,000 km/s
What is the speed of light in the light clock?
B, C
B. If the traveling twin maintains a speed of 87% the speed of light for one year (according to the clocks on the spaceship), 2 years will have lapsed on Earth.
C. If the traveling twin maintains a speed of 99.5% the speed of light for one year (according to the clocks on the spaceship), 10 years will have lapsed on Earth.
Select the letter of each sentence that is true about the traveling twin.
A. If the traveling twin maintains a speed of 50% the speed of light for one year (according to the clocks on the spaceship), 1 year will have lapsed on Earth.
B. If the traveling twin maintains a speed of 87% the speed of light for one year (according to the clocks on the spaceship), 2 years will have lapsed on Earth.
C. If the traveling twin maintains a speed of 99.5% the speed of light for one year (according to the clocks on the spaceship), 10 years will have lapsed on Earth.
D. The traveling twin experiences three frames of reference on his round trip away from and back to Earth.
true
True or False: In designing the global positioning system (GPS), which can pinpoint positions on Earth to within meters, scientists and engineers had to accommodate for relativistic time division.
A, D
A. Time for a person on Earth and time for a person in a high-speed spaceship are not the same.
D. Time travels only one way - forward.
Select the letter of each sentence that is true about space and time travel.
A. Time for a person on Earth and time for a person in a high-speed spaceship are not the same.
B. A person's heart beats to the rhythm of the realm of Earth time.
C. The amount of energy required to propel space ships to relativistic speeds are ten times the energy used to put the space shuttles into orbit.
D. Time travels only one way - forward.
The amounts of energy required to propel spaceships to relativistic speeds are billions of times the energy used to put the space shuttles in orbit.
Why are the practicalities of long space journeys prohibitive?
The observable shortening of objects moving at speeds approaching the speed of light.
What is length contraction?
The direction of motion
In which direction does space contract?
As relative speed increases, contraction in the direction of motion increases, thus causing the baseball to squish together.
A baseball is moving horizontally. Describe how the shape of the baseball changes as the relative speed between the baseball and an observer increases.
A. 0 m
Consider an object with a length at rest of 6 meters. When it approaches the speed of light, an observer at rest would measure its length approaching what value?
A. 0 m
B. 7 m
C. 10 m
D. 100 m
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Verified questions
PHYSICS
In 2014, the European Space Agency placed a satellite in orbit around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and then landed a probe on the surface. The actual orbit was elliptical, but we’ll approximate it as a 50-km-diameter circular orbit with a period of 11 days. a. What was the satellite’s orbital speed around the comet? (Both the comet and the satellite are orbiting the sun at a much higher speed.) b. What is the mass of the comet? c. The lander was pushed from the satellite, toward the comet, at a speed of 70 cm/s, and it then fell—taking about 7 hours—to the surface. What was its landing speed? The comet’s shape is irregular, but on average it has a diameter of 3.6 km.
PHYSICS
At time t = 0, a student throws a set of keys vertically upward to her sorority sister, who is in a window at distance h above. The second student catches the keys at time t. (a) With what initial velocity were the keys thrown? (b) What was the velocity of the keys just before they were caught?
PHYSICS
Radiation from the Sun falls on the frozen surface of a pond at a rate of $$ 600 \mathrm { Wm } ^ { - 2 } $$ . The ice temperature is $$ 0 ^ { \circ } \mathrm { C } $$ . a. Calculate how long it will take to melt a 1.0 cm thick layer of ice. (Take the density of ice to be $$ 900 \mathrm { kgm } ^ { - 3 } $$ .) b. Suggest why the actual mass of ices that melts is less than your answer to a.
PHYSICS
Two strings are attached to poles, however the first string is twice as long as the second. If both strings have the same tension and mu, what is the ratio of the speed of the pulse of the wave from the first string to the second string?
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