68 terms

AandP Review 3

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Name the cytoplasmic extensions that, together with the cell body provide the main receptive surfaces for neurons
Dendrite
Two types of cells of nervous system are
Neurons and Neuroglia
The space between neurons is known as the
Synapse
Sensory receptors functions are
to gather info by detecting change in outside of body, monitor external factors such as ligh and sound intensities as well as temp, O2 concentration and convert info into nerve impulses
3 general functions of nervous system are
Receiving, deciding and reacting to stimuli
Can dendrite numbers vary
Yes
What is myelin
A fatty material that forms a sheathlike covering around certain nerve fibers
List the support cells of the nervous system
Glial cells, neuroglia
What cells produce myelin in the brain and spinal cord
Oligodendrocytes
What is most common type of structural neuron found in CNS
Multipolar neurons
What neuroglial cells are found in the CNS
Astrocytes-star-shaped cell found between neurons and blood vessels support and hold structure together
Oligodendrocytes-smaller than astrocytes and have few processes. Form in rows along myelinated axons and produce myelin in the brain and spinal cord.
Microglia-small cells with few cellular processes. Found throughout the CNS
Ependyma-Cuboidal and columnar cells in inner lining of ventricles of brain and central canal of spinal cord
Dendrites on unipolar neurons are part of
Peripheral process
Synaptic knobs are at ends of
the axon
When a nerve fiber is polarized the concentration of sodiumions and potassium ions are
Sodium is higher on the outside of membrane and potassium ions is higher on inside
What ions cross cell membranes most readily
Potassium and sodium ions but potassium is able to pass more readily than sodium
What is the correct sequence of events that follows a threshold potential
Action potential which is basis for nerve impulse
Each neuron in the CNS receives input from
One synaptic knob at each end
What neurotransmitter controls skeletal muscle contraction
Acetylcholine
The central nervous system consists of what 2 organs
Brain and Spinal cord
The meninges consist of what 3 layers
The dura mater, the arachnoid mater, and the pia mater
What is the consistency and color of Cerebrospinal fluid
Clear, somewhat viscid liquid. contains more sodium and less concentration of glucose and potassium than other fluids
List the parts of a reflex arc in the correct sequence
Receptor, sensory neuron, integration within CNS involving at least one synapse, motor neuron an effector
The expected response to triceps jerk reflex is
The muscle contracts in response
What are the components of the spinal cord
Foramen magnum, conus medullaris, lumbar vertebra, filum terminale
All reflexes have what in common
Can be brought under voluntary control
What does the cerebellum control
skeletal muscle movement
What are the major parts of the diencephalon
Thalamus and Hypothalams
The function of the cerebral association areas is to
Analyze and interpret sensory experiences memory, reasoning and judgement
Which lobe of your brain are you using when you answer questions
Frontal lobe
List the fissures and what lobes they divide
Longitudinal fissure-divides 2 cerebral hemispheres
Transverse-seperates cerebrum from cerebellum
Sylvian/lateral-divides temporary lobes from frontal and parietal lobe
A spinal nerve passing through the intervertebral foramen is
a united ventral and dorsal root
How do we treat type 1 and 2 diabetes
with insulin
The area of skin supplied by sensory nerve fibers from dorsal root is called
Dermatomes
Somatic nervous system consists of nerve fibers that connect the CNS to the _______whereas the autonomic nervous system consists of fibers that connect the _______________
A) skin and skeletal muscles B) CNS to viscera such as heart stomach intestines and various glands
What is a lumbar puncture
...
In general, where are receptors for the general senses are found
Widespread, associated with skin, muscle joints and viscera
Special senses arise from receptors located where
In the head
The sequence of information flow in response to biting into slice of pizza would be
...
What type of receptors are olfactory receptors
chemoreceptors
What is the proper name for pain receptors
nociceptors
In what ways do pain receptors differ from other receptors in regard to constant stimuli
...
Taste receptors are found in what part of body
Close to the tongue
Which are the primary taste sensations
Sweet sour salty and bitter
What is the range of human hearing
20Hz to 20000Hz
What are the main parts of the inner tunic of eye
Cornea, sclera, choroid ciliary body, iris retina
What controls the thickening of lens of eye
Muscles of eye
Rhodopsin is found in what cells
Receptor
Light is refracted when it passes
The cornea
Movement of hair cells in semicircular canals signals what is taking place
Direction of motion
What does a colorblind person lack
Amount of cone cells in the retina
A hormone is a _______________and the target cell is ________________
A) molecule that has a metabolic effect on another cell B) a cell that has receptors for specific hormones
How do exocrine glands differ from endocrine glands
Endocrine glands secrete the hormonesdirectly into the blood and not into ducts
What type of gland is a swerat gland
Exocrine gland
Endocrine means
Internal secretion
What do hormones do
Hormones are chemical messengers that help regulate such things as growth,metabolism, hunger, sexual arousal and reproductive functioning
All hormones are examples of
endocrine and neuroendocrine signaling mechanism
What is a tropic hormone
Hormone that has an endocrine gland as its target tissue
Growth hormone control
your bodies growth
What gland secretes triiodothyronine
Thyroid gland
Someone that has a very high metabolic rate, skinny, has protruding eyes is symptoms of what disorder
Hyperthyroidism
What does thyroxine do
Helps regulate growth and metabolism
Secretion of insulin causes what to break down
Glycogen
What gland have both endocrine and exocrine functions
Pancreas
Where is the pineal gland located
Deep between cerebral hemispheres, where it attaches to upper portion of thalamus near roof of third ventricle
The hormone that the pineal gland secretes is
Melatonin
What is diabetes mellitus
Increased urine output/honey, the pancreas cannot produce insulin
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is caused by
Auto immune disorder where immune system attacks pancreatic beta cells, largely destroying them and stops insulin secretion
Type 2 diabetes mellitus results from
Blood glucose buildup signaling the pancreas to secrete more insulin