A.P World chapter 9& 10 test on Byzantine, Russia, and Western Europe
Terms in this set (28)
What was the Byzantine and Western European relationship to Rome?
Both were heavily influenced by Roman empire and wanted its empires to be the descendants of the empire
Compare the merchant class of Byzantine Empire and Western European societies.
-merchants important but not powerful (no political power)
-controlled by government/emperor
-political power due to divided government
-can negotiate with king
-Ex: charter started between townspeople and kings
Why was Russia known as the stepchild of the Byzantine empire? Give concrete examples.
-Common form of Christianity
-came from different roots
-borrowed devotion of gods/saints, ceremonies and luxury, ornate churches, monogamy, almsgiving
-Didn't have extensive bureaucracy and education and political organization of Byzantines
How did the Byzantine Empire come to an end? Kievian Russians?
-Seljuk Turks take over Asiatic province
>Battle of Manzikert 1071-->loss of tax revenues and food supplies for the Byzantines
-4th crusade 1204 (Venetian merchants take Constantinople)
-Rival princes set up regional governments
-Rapid decline of Byzantium
-When Constantinople falls in 1453, Russia claims throne of east European leadership a "third, new Rome"
Compare the intellectual activity of the medieval west in the 700s vs. 1100s.
-most people are illiterate
-very few books
-no real advancement in medicine
-Scholars in monasteries
-rise in university, theology, Gothic architecture, military innovations(guns and cannons)
Compare the nature of bureaucracies of Byzantine, China and western European societies.
Byzantine & China
-Strong and extensive bureaucracy
-let's talented individuals become part of bureaucracy
What technological achievements led to agricultural revolution of the 900s in Western Europe? What were the effects of agricultural revolution?
moldboard, three- field system, ox plow-->agricultural surplus
What was the impact of the improved economy after the tenth century on the social system of Western Europe?
-Landlord controls lessened
-Growth of tensions between landlords and peasants
What were the causes and effects of the Crusades?
(military champagnes sanctuated by the Catholic Church going against the middle east)
-kings want to conquer lands and gain glory, wealth, and power
-Pope wants to strengthen and reinforce the power of the church. Church grants people forgiveness of sins if they participate in the crusades
-facilitates exchange of knowledge from the middle east
-Lasting legacy of distrust between Christian world and Muslim world
What were the functions of the merchant and artisan guilds?
-primary value of community, security, and protection of its membership and craft
How did societal attitudes and structures change as economy changed during the High Middle Ages?
People eventually became more accepting over banks and usury.
-serfs are rising up-->tension against landlords
How did roles of women change over time in Western Europe? How did their roles compare to women in other post-classical civilizations?
-Became limited over time
Compared to Islam
- less confined to household
- less segregated in church services - but couldn't lead
- Urban women had role in commerce
- Could operate/run guilds
- Literature stressed women as docile/supportive/chivalry
Which groups experienced conflict with each other due to different values and agendas?
Guilds Vs. Capitalists, Serfs Vs. Landlords
Compare and contrast the spread of civilizations in Eastern and Western Europe.
Western Europe-Roman Catholic
Eastern Europe-mix of both Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox
Compare and contrast the political structure of the Byzantine Empire and Western Europe.
-high level of bureaucracy centralization
-gov't regulation of society and economy
-regional feudal monarchies (England & France)
-lack of bureaucracy
Compare the intellectual focus of Byzantine Empire and Western Europe.
-Hellenistic, secular focus
-Theology and faith
How did manorialism and feudalism provide the building block for medieval political structure and society?
In Early Middle Ages- provided protection, organization, allowed for survival
What were the benefits of the monastic movement in Western Europe?
Set up schools, took care of sick, hospitality to travelers, St. Benedict- created community of Monks
Compare the regional monarchies of France and England.
-William the Conqueror(viking descendant) established feudal monarchy
-Magna Carta 1215, church limits power of king
-eventually develops into an absolute form of monarchy in 1500s
-still regional kingdom, but they start to show characteristics of centralization
-less limitations of the king (not controlled as much by the church)
Identify major commercial centers in Byzantine Empire and Western Europe (900-1300). What items did they import and export? Which groups did they trade with?
Western Europe- Hanseatic, Italian city stats (trade flourished in Venice). Export- textiles, import- Asian luxury: spices, silk, and colored glass
Byzantine- Constantinople. Import- extensive manufacturing system
What kinds of changes (PRIMES) occurred in the late Middle Ages (after 1300s)
Political- feudal lords losing power, kings getting more power by personal army
Religion- Balance between Church and state shifts- Church starts to become more politically involved.
Intellectual- universities, theology
military- canons, guns, crusades
Economy- Increase in trade, trading alliances and centers (Hanseatic league, Italian City-states), black death from trade, desire for Asia goods never ends. Capitalism, banking->for profit, competition, Guilds-craft/skill specific associations
What were unintended consequences of the trade?
Plagues. (The Black Death)
Roman Catholic Christianity Vs. Eastern Orthodox Christianity
-Pope has highest authority (Pope Gregory Vs. Henry the 2nd)
-services and teachings in Latin
-Priests not allowed to marry (celibacy)
-divorce not permitted
Greek (Eastern) Orthodox
-Emperor has authority over the patriarch
-services and teachings are in Greek or local languages
-priests allowed to marry
-icons- religious images but not statues (8th century- iconoclasm controversy)
Early middle ages: 500-1000
High middle ages: 1000-1250
Late Middle ages: 1250-1500
Why is the slide on Chivalry towards the end?
-Nobility of aristocracy begins to weaken
-Decreased military power due to hired armies
-Focus money on luxury items
Hundred Years war
-Between France and England
-Weakened their feudal systems
-military innovations- gun powder, canon, professional archers part of paid army
Groups that benefited the most from the changing social and economic conditions
Kings- personal armies
Serfs- can live in towns and cities, can become part of professional world
"when Adam delved and Eve span, who was then a gentleman?"- Serf
-means that god didn't automatically create hierarchical system when creating Adam and Eve
How would Thomas Aquinas react to usury?
-He feels that it's wrong due to Christian faith
-urged that all prices should be "just", reflecting only the labor put into goods
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