Gunnery Checkride

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Terms in this set (24)
Anti-Armor Hellfire Code1755 (default)Vehicles/Small boats Hellfire Code1766Bunkers/Buildings/Large Patrol Craft HF Code1777Adobe Wall/ Large rooms HF Code1788BRASSCRAF (Individual firing positions- ABF)B: background R: range to tgt A: altitude S: sun S: shadow C: cover and concealment R: rotor wash A: area to maneuver F: fields of fireNORMA (Multiple helicopter- ABF)N: nature of target O: obstacles R: range to tgt M: multiple firing positions/lanes A: area to maneuverLaser detractors (USABOBBEP)U- Underspill: Laser energy that is spilled from the TGT resulting from the beam being placed too LOW off TGT center S- Spot Jitter: Laser spot movement on the TGT that results from the MOTION of the aircraft A- Attenuation: laser beam energy being shed by obscurants such as smoke along the Laser to TGT LOS and missile to target LOS and reducing laser energy to the seeker B- Beam divergence: the laser beam gets bigger as range to tgt increases O- Overspill: laser energy spilled from tgt as a result of beam being placed too high B- Backscatter: the portion of the laser beam energy reflected off atmospheric particles in the laser path back toward the designator B- Boresight error: occurs when laser spot is not properly aligned with the TADS reticle, which produces an error in the location of the laser spot on the TGT E- Entrapment: occurs at high angles against reflective surfaces that reflect laser energy and MSL seeker follows reflected laser P- Podium effect: (STATIC: when the angle between the laser designator and the missile seeker prevent the laser spot from being detected or tracked) (DYNAMIC: when the designator is illuminating a target and some portion of the target blocks the reflected energy preventing the laser spot from being detected or tracked)Interior Ballistics (BLTWC)BLTWC addresses characteristics affecting projectile motion inside barrel or rocket tube (Barrel wear, launcher alignment, thrust misalignment, weight, charges) -barrel wear: over time gaseous action, propellant residue and projectile movement wear away a barrel's inner sfc, resulting in lower muzzle velocity and decrease in accuracy -propellant charges: production variances, temperature and moisture of storage may cause differences in muzzle velocity and projectile trajectory. -Projectile weight: heavier the projectile the lower the velocity -Launcher tube and rocket pod alignment: precise alignment of each tube vary due to manufacturer variation -thrust misalignment: condition resulting from manufacturer tolerances in mass production and burn rates. Free flight rkts have inherent thrust misalignment, which is greatest cause of error in free flight. Spinning rocket reduces affect of thrust misalignmentExterior ballistics (GAYWP)GAYWP influence the motion of the projectile as it moves along its trajectory. (Gravity, air resistance, yaw, wind drift, projectile drift) -air resistance: friction between a projectile and surrounding air causes drag (larger and faster projectiles produce more drag) -gravity: projectile velocity is highest at barrel exit and decays as a function of range -yaw: yaw is the angle between a projectile's centerline and trajectory -projectile drift: when viewed from the rear, most projectiles spin in a clockwise direction, causing it to move right in a horizontal plane. PD increases as range to tgt increases -Wind drift: affect of wind on projectileAerial Ballistics (RAT)RAT aerial fired weapons characteristics are derived from fin or spin stabilized munitions and whether they are fired from a fixed or flexible mode (rotor down wash error, angular rate error, turning bank error) -rotor down wash error: acts on the projectile as it leaves the barrel or launcher, most noticeable change occurs below ETL IGE -Angular Rate: caused by motion (pitch, roll, yaw) in the launch platform as a projectile leaves the weapon -Turning bank: firing while A/c is in a bank affects fixed and flexible weapons (aim high and opposite direction of bank) (fin stabilized projectiles: propellant force, center of gravity, relative wind effect) -Propellant force: bullet reaches max velocity at or near wpns muzzle, however rocket continues to accelerate until motor burnout. As rocket reaches max vel, kinetic energy tends to overcome other forces and cause the rocket to travel in a straight line -Center of gravity: rocket's CG is in front of the center of pressure, CG moves forward as rkt propellant burns. RKT fins impart an aerodynamic force that ensures the center of pressure follows CG -Relative wind effect: when plt flies AC out of trim, change in crosswind component deflects rkt as it leaves the launcher, and rocket will pivot about its cg into relative wind (spin stabilized projectiles: trajectory shift, port starboard effect, projectile jump) -Trajectory shift: when a weapon's bore line differs from AC flight path, AC movement causes a shift in projectile -Port starboard effect: when projectile drift and projectile drift combine, (Ex. when a tgt is to the left the effects of shift and drift compound each other, causing round to move right, gunner must aim to target's left) -Projectile jump: occurs when crew fires a weapon from an aircraft in flight and the weapon's muzzle is pointed in any direction other than the relative windTerminal Ballistics (SWAB VS)SWAB VS describes a projectile's characteristics and effects on a target (Sfc condition, warhead type, angle of impact, boresight error, vibrations, sights) -Blast, heat and fragmentation are influenced by fuze and warhead functioning, impact angle, and surface condition -surface conditions: effect projectiles lethality (sand rocks veg) -angle of impact: altitude determines impact angle and fragmentation pattern -vibrations: affect azimuth and elevation -sights: Sight condition and alignment accuracy with the weapons bore axis can cause displacement in projectile's dispersion pattern -fragmentation: primary kill mechanism of explosive munitions, they travel further than the blast and are more versatileRF MSL LOBL AND LOAL DETERMINATION1. Moving TGT: LOBL min range 500M to 8000M max range 2. Stationary TGT -500-1000M is LOBL -1000-2500M LOAL -2500-8000M LOAL (6k to 8k is target handover data from RFHO or TADS, FCR cannot process stationary targets past 6k)Fundamentals of Reconnaissance (GORRDDE)Gain and maintain enemy contact Orient on the recon objective Report all information rapidly and accurately Retain freedom of maneuver Develop the situation rapidly Do not keep reconnecting assets in reserve Ensure continuous reconFundamentals of Security (MOPPP)- Maintain enemy contact - Orient on the protected force, area, or facility - Provide early and accurate warning - Provide reaction time and maneuver space - Perform continuous reconnaissance