adult health exam 1

blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
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Terms in this set (58)
PaCO235-45SaO295-100%HCO322-26uncompensatedpH= abnormal either PaCO2 or HCO3 is abnormalpartially compensatedpH= abnormal Both PaCO2 and HCO3 are abnormalfully compensatedpH= normal Both PaCO2 and HCO3 are abnormalallen testdetermining the patency of the radial artery testing for adequate circulationfrom which artery does the provider draw an ABG?Radial arteryif PaO2 and SaO2 are below normal limits the patient is?hypoxic (low level of oxygen in body tissue)metabolic acidosis complications-Cardiac dysrhythmia -Renal osteodystrophy (bone) -Renal encephalopathy (brain)crystalloidelectrolytes dissolved in water or other solutions (normal Saline)colloidlarger molecules (protein or starch); called volume expanders; albumin, dextran, mannitol - used for trauma situations (hypovolemic)isotonicno shifthypotonicshift from intravascular into both intracellular & interstitial spaceshypertonicshift from intracellular to intravascular spacesphlebitisinflammation of a veinInfiltrationnon-vesicant solution or medication enter tissuesExtravasationvesicant solution or medication enters into surrounding tissueCentral line complications- infection - loss of patency - air embolismadmin of IV meds- infusion (continuous) - intermittent infusion (piggyback) - bolus (all at once) - IV pushWho obtains informed consent?surgeonWho can witness a consent?preoperative nurseTime Out consists of3'p correct patient correct procedure correct (part) surgical sitecomponents of an informed consent:- consent for procedure - name of surgeon - reason - alternative options - consent for anesthesia - consent to administer bloodwhat medication should be avoided before surgery?anticoagulants (blood thinners)guidelines for last oral intakeno___ within ___ before surgery: - full meals (8hrs) - light meals (6hrs) - full liquids (4hrs) - clear liquids (2hrs)IV preparation for surgery18-gaugeskin preparation for surgeryshower with butadiene or hexachlorophene soap - shave with clippers, not razorsterile team members include• The surgeon • Surgical assistants • The scrub nurse or surgical technologistnon sterile team members- Anesthesia provider - Circulating RN - Unlicensed assistive personnel - OR Director/Coordinator/Managersurgical timeoutcorrect: - patient - procedure - part (site) - surgeon - position - equipment - imaging studiesGoals for anesthesia- amnesia (no memory) - analgesia (no pain) - paralytic (no movement)3 main complications for general anesthesia- hemorrhage - infection - respiratory (depression, pneumonia)triggers for Malignant Hyperthermia (MH)- volatile gas - succinylcholine-IVwhat is malignant hyperthermia?sustained muscular contraction related to increased intracellular calcium ion concentrationmain signs of malignant hyperthermiamasseter muscle rigidity, muscle rigidity, tachycardia, hyperthermiaairway complications:- laryngospasm (vocal cords closure) - bronchial intubation (only in 1 lung) - tracheal and esophageal perforation (excessive force) - aspirationPACU phase 1care immediately postanesthesia periodPACU phase 2less invasive, planning admission or dischargePACU phase 3observation car/day hospital "less than 24hrs" - prepared for dischargepotential post op complications: respiratory- atelectasis - pneumonia - pulmonary embolismPotential post-op complications: cardiovascular- fluid and electrolyte imbalance - tachycardia - vasoconstriction - dehydration - surgical fluid/blood loss - clot formationPotential post-op complications: neurological- delirium - postoperative cognitive declinePotential post-op complications: GIpostoperative ileus (motility has come to a stop)Potential post-op complications: urinaryurinary retentionPotential post-op complications: integumentarysurgical site infectiondehiscenceopening of an incision with organs covered and intactEviscerationincision separation with protrusion of organs