what does the reticular formation control- maintenance of posture/muscle tone
- substanti niagrasubstanti nigrainhibits the activity of the basal nuclei by releasing dopamine, makes actions not smooth and not all power (stomping/slamming piano keys)if the substanti nigra is damagedParkinsons disease. More basal nuclei are active, and can't be controlled by dopamine, making it difficult to have voluntary movements bc opposing muscles never relax4 parts of the midbrainnuclei superior colliculi, inferior colliculi, cerebral peduncles, reticular formationcerebellar peduncles of the ponslink the cerebellum w/ the rest of the brainThe pons contains ___ for control of ___ and depth of _____nuclei for control of pace and depth of respirationcerebellum is the2nd largest part of the brain (behind cerebrum)the cerebellum contains (cortex, folds, how many hemispheres)a cortex called the cerebellar cortex and folds called folia.
has 2 hemispheres (anterior and posterior)functions of the cerebellum1.) adjust postural muscles in order to maintain balance
2.) programming/finetunning movements controlled at both conscious and unconscious levels (has to work w/ cerebral cortex, basal nuclei, and brain stem by sending info back and forth)the cerebellum can be damaged byalcohol/drug trauma called ataxia*the medulla oblongata connectsbrain and spinal cordall communications between the brain and spinal chordmust ascend/descend through nerve tracts in the medulla oblongatathe medulla oblongata contains nucleiwhere tracts relay/switch to the other side
(and nuclei for the 5 cranial nerves)what does the portion of the RAS in the medulla oblongata docontrols vital autonomic functions through the cardiovascular and respiratory centerscardiovascular centeradjusts the heart rate, the strength of cardiac contractions, and the flow of blood through tissuesrespiratory centerset pace for respiratory movements and makes adjustments from the centers to the pons*each spinal nerve pairmonitors a specific region of the body (review these in pages 284)dermatonearea of the skin on the body that is monitored by a specific spinal nerve (tiger stripe guy pg 283)nerve plexuscranial- neck and diaphragm
brachial- shoulder and upper arm
lumbar and sacral- pelvic girdle and lower limbsHow many ventricles are in the brain?4; 2 lateral ventricles, Third ventricle, and Fourth Ventricle.what are ventriclesareas that contain CSFWhy do these ventricles contain CSF1.) it makes the brain float (lighten the brain)
2.) contains ions, nutrients, and wastes which are dissolved in CSFwhat is inside each ventriclechoroid plexusesWhat are chorid plexuses?areas that produce CSF (produced by empendymal cells)empendymal cellsnot all produce CSF, some have cilia that move the CSF.How much CSF does the brain produce per day?500 mL, but ventricles only have 150 mL at a time, constantly replacing with new and putting the old in the blood stream