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APWH- Ch. 22
Terms in this set (9)
ANC leader imprisoned by Afrikaner regime for 27 years for terrorism/violence against the state; released in 1990 and elected as president of South Africa in 1994.
Indian National Congress
A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in (British controlled) government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor.
the form of nonviolent resistance initiated in India by Mahatma Gandhi in order to oppose British rule and to hasten political reforms- boycotts, marches, sit-ins, hunger strikes, etc.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Indian Muslim politician who founded the state of Pakistan. A lawyer by training, he joined the All-India Muslim League in 1913. As leader of the League from the 1920s on, he negotiated with the British/INC for Muslim Political Rights. From 1940 on, he led the movement for the independence of India's Muslims in a separate state of Pakistan, founded in 1947.
South Africans descended from mostly Dutch settlers of the seventeenth century. Though a minority among South Africans, they held political power after 1910. British called them "Boers". Spoke own language and considered themselves rooted in Africa, hence the name...
African National Congress
A group formed in protest of the policy of Apartheid in South Africa. It was eventually outlawed due to their violent tactics, and Nelson Mandela, one of its leaders, was imprisoned for over thirty years. Now the dominant political party in South Africa.
Mustafa Kamal Ataturk
An Ottoman and Turkish army officer and the first president of Turkey. Following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I he led the Turkish national movement. After the war he greatly transformed Turkey into a modern Westernized country.
Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Dictatorial and unpopular leader of Iran whom CIA helped bring to power in 1953; his secular gov't collapsed as Shia Muslims ran him out of the country; Islamist movement then installed Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini as leader.
A supreme religious leader of the Shiite group, and leader of Iran from 1979, after the Revolution, to his death in 1989. The last decade of his life was filled with turmoil, notably the hostage crisis at the former U.S. Embassy in Tehran and the Iran-Iraq War.
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