Chapters 8, 9, & 10
Terms in this set (43)
What is Cognition?
The inner workings of your mind, mental content and processes.
Processes that cognitive psychologists study...
human intelligence, language, thinking & problem solving, memory, attention, and perception
How does Reaction time tell us about mental processes?
(A process with more steps will take longer) This would help determine who needed more help than others.
naming the ink color takes longer and yields more errors.
Stroop Task: Automatic process
reading the word, especially when the color font and word match
Stroop Task: Effortful process
Reading the color font, especially when they color and word did not match.
happen in order
happen at the same time
we miss big changes in our environment simply because we are not looking for it or are not paying complete attention.
What makes Human language special?
Shared: more than 1 person
Symbolic: use of symbols
Generative: can express an infinite number of things
Problem solving & Reasoning
combining information from memory with current info to achieve a goal
a mental block that inhibits finding a new function for a previously known object
from general to specific
(all birds lay eggs, a robin is a bird, robins lay eggs)
from specific to general
History of intelligence testing
French Gov. wanted to identify slow and fast learners, Binet and Simon developed the first intelligence test. Intelligence was thought to be the ability to reason abstractly, adapt to novel circumstances, acquire knowledge, and benefit from experience
capacity to reason well and learn quickly (think on feet) and contain a large amount of knowledge.
Theory of Intelligence: Charles Spearman
single common factor among all mental abilities: g for general knowledge. Later research found g was not a uniform measure.
Theory of Intelligence: Raymond Cattell
1.) Fluid intelligence: ability to solve new problems
2.) Crystallized intelligence: knowledge of the world
* Stanford-Binet intelligence scale (mental age / chronological age x 100) had age effects
* Weschler: WISC and WAIS (IQ relative to same aged peers)
average 100, most between 85-115
80 and below starts retardation
80 - 115 average
115 and up starts exceptional IQ
IQ is stable across age and retesting, predict school grades (but not at top end), predict life outcomes
Goddard: exclusion of mentally defective immigrants
Eugenics: idea that humans can direct the evolution of species
-stronger correlation between identical twins than fraternal twins
-adopted children had similar IQ to biological parents
-number of school years
White german mothers with children from white or black american soldiers, IQ was found to be the same
how an individual changes as a factor of their genes and development
study following the same people as they develop
Study involving different groups of people at various points of development
(zygote > embryo > fetus) 3 trimesters, 1st trimester folic acid is very important and substance use is detrimental. Begin to hear between 16-24 weeks.
Born knowing the rhythm of native language, have survival reflexes.
growth spurt, frontal lobes are not developed
Tabula Rosa or inate abilities?
nurture vs. nature
described the development of thinking processes, says development involves assimilation (fit new info into existing ideas) and accommodation (alter existing ideas to fit new info)
Bith - 2: movement and sensation, object performance
2-7: Operation (any mental procedure for mentally acting on an object), symbolic representation, dont understand conservation (logically determine that a certain quantity will remain the same despite adjustment of the container, shape, or apparent size)
Concrete Operational Stage
7-11: think logically about concrete events, understand conservation, Theory of Mind: what you know about others mental states
Formal Operational Stage
11-adult: think logically about abstract ideas, formulate hypothesis about the world and test them
(imprinting in geese) critical period: time in which something must develop or it never will.
development of an intense social/emotional bond to caregiver, sensitive period: time in which something is best able to develop, learning after will be hard
(monkeys & mothers) the need for social companionship, contact comfort: Comfort derived from an infant's physical contact with the mother or caregiver.