Personality Vocabulary with Mnemonic Devices and Examples

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Oedipus ComplexIt was where Freud said that there is a mostly unconscious process where boys displace erotic attraction toward their mother. They need to overcome it by transitioning to being attracted to girls of their own age and being able to identify with their fathers.IdentificationIt is the mental process where one tries to become like another individual, most often their parent of the same sex.Penis EnvyIt was what Freud said where females wanted to have a penis, a condition that most commonly caused their attraction to males. Women envy that men have penises and they do not, causing their attraction to them.FixationIt occurs when psychosecual development is arrested or stopped at an immature stage.Ego Defense MechanismsThey are mental strategies, that are mostly unconscious and that are employed in order to try to lessen the experiences of anxiety and conflict for an individual.RepressionIt is an unconscious process that excludes feelings and thoughts that may be unacceptable in society away from one's memory and awareness.RationalizationIt is a defensive mechanism that uses reasons for one's actions that would be socially acceptable for their choices that were really motivated by socially unacceptable motives. An example of this would be if an overwhelmed student chose to cheat on a test and then say that it's okay because "everyone cheats".Reaction FormationIt is an ego denfense mechanism that happens when people act in the most polar opposite way than how they truly feel. An example of this would be if a child with a low self-esteem became a bully.DisplacementIt is an ego defense mechanism where an individual shifts their reaction from it's true source to a safer person or object. An example of this would be if someone's boss made them mad, so they later yelled at their close friend.RegressionIt is an ego defense mechanism where one adopts juvenile and immature behaviors that were effective for dealing with stress at a younger age, but likely are not as acceptable as they have grown older. An example of this would be if an individual wet their pants when they were under stress.SublimationIt is an ego defense mechanism where one gratifies their aggressive and/or sexual desires through acceptable means in one's culture. An example of this would be if someone decided to be on the football team and play football to gratify their aggressive desires.ProjectionIt is an ego defense mechanism where one may cast their own unconscious desires onto other objects and people. An example of this would be when young kids are fighting and both accuse the other of starting the conflict.Projective TestsThey are personality assessment instruments. An example of these would be the Rorschach and TAT, based off of Freud's ego defense mechanism of projection.Rorschach Inkblot TestIt is a projective test where participants are asked to describe what they see in a series of ten ink blots.Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)It is a kind of projective test that requires subjects to make up and create stories to explain ambiguous pictures. An example of this would be if someone was shown a photo of someone else's TAT (tattoo) and was asked about what backstory they felt the tattoo had.Psychic DeterminismIt was the assumption Freud had that said unconscious traumas, conflicts, and/or desires caused all behavioral and mental responses. An example of this would be like if you were always late for plans with a specific person, Freud would say it is unconsciously motivated and not random.Neo-FreudiansThey are theorists that didn't agree with Freud, but their theories were related to psychodynamic psychology, mostly focusing on motivation as the source for the personality's energy. Neo-Freudians - New FreudiansPersonal UnconsciousIt is one of Jung's terms for the part of the unconscious that somewhat corresponds with Freud's term id. An ID proves who a person is.Collective UnconsciousIt was one of Jung's terms that he added as one of the parts of the unconscious, this one is where instinctive "memories" are, like archetypes, which everyone has.ArchetypesThey are ancient memory images in the collective unconscious. They appear and reappear in folktales, art, and literature worldwide.IntroversionIt is a Jungian dimension that focuses on inner experience, one's own feelings and experiences. People who are introverted may be seen as being more quiet, shy, and less sociable.ExtraversionIt is a Jungian dimension involving turning one's attention towards others or outward. People who are extraverted are usually seen as being more loud, sociable, and spend more time with others.Basic AnxietyIt is an emotion proposed by Karen Horney, that gives a sense or feeling of uncertainty and loneliness in a hostile world that can then in change lead to maladjustment.Neurotic NeedsIn Horney's theory, they are signs of neurosis. They are 10 needs that are normal desires, but have been carried to the extremes. An example of this would be that one of them is the need for affection and approval, an example of this would be if someone kept saying things like, "would you still love me if I was a worm?"Inferiority ComplexIt is a feeling of inferiority that is rooted in childhood and mostly unconscious.CompensationIt is making up for one's imagined or real deficiencies.TraitsThey are personality characteristics that are stable and that are assumed to exist within an individual to help guide their actions as well as their thoughts in different conditions. Traits - Tri - Three There are three kinds of them, central, secondary, and cardinal.Central TraitsThe trait theory says that they are the traits that are created from the basis of personality. Some examples of this would be if someone was considered moody, happy, or mad.Self-Actualizing PersonalityThey are people that are healthy and have met their basic needs and are able free to form and fulfill their potentials.Fully Functional PersonIt is a term that Carl Rogers used for self-actualizing and healthy people, with a self-concept, that is congruent yet positive to reality.Phenomenal FieldIt is our psychological reality made up of an individual's feelings and perceptions. An example of this would be if an A+ student got a C on a test, they would flip out, as to where if a failing student got a C on a test, they would throw a party.Positive PsychologyIt is a more modern movement in psychology that centers on desirable aspects of human functioning, instead of on psychopathology emphasis.Recipricol DeterminismIt is a process where behaviors, cognitions, and the environment mutually influence one another.Locus of ControlIt is the sense one has of where their life influences originate. Locus of Control shows if you feel that you have a high level or low level of control in your life.Secondary TraitsIn the trait theory, they are an individual's preferences and attitudes.Cardinal TraitsIn the trait theory, they are the components of personality that define people's lives, however, most people do not have them. An example of them would be sadism or greed.HumorsThey were four body fluids, that an ancient theory said controls personality through their relative abundance. They were blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile.TemperamentIt is the pervasive and basic personality dispositions that are see in early childhood and then establish one's behaviors tempos and moods. An example is a main theme in one's personality. So in one person it may be shyness and in another it may be moodiness.Big 5/Five-Factor TheoryenIt is a trait perspective that says the personality is made up of five fundamental personality dimensions. They are agreeableness, neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness NeuroticismOpenness to ExperienceIt is ne of the big five traits and people with high levels of this are curious, independent, and intellectually inquiring, and people with lower levels of this are more close-minded.ConscientiousnessIt is one of the big five traits and people with high levels of this are dependable, cautious, preserving, and have strength over their supergos, while people with lower levels of this are more irresponsible and impulsive.ExtraversionIt is one of the big five traits and people with high levels of this are bold, can easily adapt in social situation, are confident in themselves, social, and assertive, while people with lower levels of this are more introverted. An example of this would be someone who is funny, loud, and easy to get along with.AgreeablenessIt is one of the big five traits and people with high levels of this are likable, conforming, warm, and compliant, while at lower levels people are more negative and cold.NeuroticismIt is one of the big five traits and people with high levels of this have anxiety and are more emotion, while people with lower levels are more emotionally stable and controlled. An example of this would be someone who is constantly on edge and anxious, even when there is nothing anxiety provoking going on at the moment for them.MMPI-2It is a personality assessment instrument that is used a lot and very commonly, and it scores one on ten important clinical traits and it is also called the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.ReliabilityIt is an attribute of a psychological test that shows that consistent results are achieved. An example of this would be if someone took a personality test at two different times (a few months apart) and got similar or identical results as their prior attempt.ValidityIt is an attribute of a psychological test that says it measures exactly what it is supposed to measure. An example of this would be if the MMPI-2 test could correctly diagnose individuals with depression, paranoia, etc.Person-Situation ControversyIt is a theoretical dispute about the relative contribution of personality factors as well as situational factors in controlling behavior. An example of this would be if someone was very shy and quiet around their friend's parents and other adults, but when around people their age and at parties, is chatty, insane, and crazy.TypeIt is especially important clusters or dimensions of traits that are central to a person's personality and are also seen in around the same pattern in the majority of people.Fundamental Attribution ErrorIt is the assumption that the behavior of another person, usually inappropriate, not desired, or clumsy, is a result of flaws in their personality rather than flaws in the situation. An example of this would be if someone fell in the hall, many people may say how clumsy they are, rather than wondering if maybe there was a floor tile loose or someone pushed them.EclecticIt is either building your own personality theory by taking different pieces from many theories and/or perspectives or switching between theories in order to explain different situations.Free AssociationIt is a method of exploring and testing the unconscious in a way that the person relaxes and says whatever comes to their mind, no matter what. An example of this would be where you lay on the couch and say whatever you want without filtering or censoring yourself and having a therapist listen to you.Oral StageIt takes place between 0 to 18 months and the erogenous zone is the mouth, it's conflict is weaning and fixation in the stage can end with clinginess, acting tough when one is not, and/or smoking and eating too much. An example of this stage would be when children suck, bite, and chew things and put them in their mouths because it brings them pleasure.Anal StageThis stage is between 18 to 36 months and the erogenous zone is the anus, the conflict is the control of the bladder and the bowel, fixation in this stage can cause people to be sloppy, disorganized, and destructive or clean, a perfectionist, stubborn, and stingy. An example of this would be a child focusing on toilet training and children get pleasure from expelling their bowels.Phallic StageIt is the stage that takes place between the ages of 3 and 6 and the erogenous zone is the genitals, the conflicts could be the oedipus complex or the electra complex, where a child is attracted sexually to their parent of the opposite gender. An example of this would be a child notices they have genitals, touching them feels good, and others may have the same ones, the goal of the stage is to learn this is wrong and get rid of the thoughts they have.Latency StageThis stage takes place from the age of 6 until puberty and there is no erogenous zone as this is a dormant phase of sexual feelings and this is when a child learns the roles of genders and then begins to identify with their parent of the same gender. An example of this would be that girls start chasing the boys and boys suddenly have "cooties" and also they play more with children of the same sex compared to children of the opposite sex.Genital StageThis stage lasts from puberty until death and the erogenous zone is the genitals again and during this stage there is the maturation of (hetero)sexual interests and it is normal to be fixated in this stage for the rest of one's life. An example of this would be when one seeks pleasure from the genitals from having fabulous heterosexual sex for the rest of their life and Freud said that one wanted to be fixated here.Electra ComplexIt takes place in the phallic stage and is a girl's sexual desire toward her father and having feelings of hatred and jealousy toward her mother and seeing her as competition.DenialIt is when one refuses to believe or perceive the reality that is painful. An example of this would be if someone was cut from a sports team and then said that the coach didn't know what he was talking about.Unconditional Positive RegardIt is being accepting and caring and having an attitude without judgements of others. An example of this would be how therapists now treat patients, in a way that is not judgemental and is kind and caring and accepting of them.Self-ConceptIt is all of an individual's thoughts and feelings about themselves and it is the most central feature of personality in the eyes of humanists. An example of this would be the combination of one's social self, creative self, physical self, active self, and so on.Personality InventoryIt is a survey or questionnaire where people answer to items that are picked out to gauge a wide range of behaviors as well as feelings. An example of this would be like a 100 question test that asks you to answer questions on a scale of 1 to 5 based on how much you agree or disagree with them.Hans EysenckHe was a personality trait theorist who focuses on neuroticism and extraversion.McCrae and CostaThey were two people who said there are two kinds of people based on if they are or are not conscientious, agreeable, neurotic (emotional stability or instability), openness, and extraversion.Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)It is a commonly and widely used test based on Jungian types to determine one's personalityImplicit Personality TheoryIt is assumptions about personality that are held by people, usually that are not psychologists, that simplify the task of understanding other individuals.