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A Remarkable Age of Renewal: 1046-1305

Chapter Five Religion
STUDY
PLAY
Henry III
emperor who saw abuse of powers in the Church & named 3 German popes in a row
lay investiture
layperson names pope (i.e. Henry III)
Henry III does lay investiture when?
1046
Leo IX
starts reforms
Gregory VII
Gregorian Reform/climax of reform movement
Henry IV
an emporer excommunicated for speaking out against the Church; tricks pope into lifting it
Henry IV excommunicated when?
677
excommunicated
no longer participate in sacramental life of the Church
Concordat of Worms
pope can now name leaders; does away with lay investiture
Concordat of Worms when?
1122
Concordat of Worms who?
Callistus II and Henry III
Gregorian Reforms against?
lay investiture & corruption of religion by money
one of 3 German popes appointed by Henry III
Leo IX
Innocent III
theocracy (?)
controversial
Fourth Lateran Council when?
1215
Fourth Lateran Council
discusses almost all aspeects of church life, including transubstantiation; proudest moment of Innocent III's life
transubstantiation
th ehcange of bread & wine into the Body and Blood of Chirst at Mass
Urban II
launches Crusades at Council of Clermont (1095)
Alexius I
appeals to Pope Urban II for help against Turks in E empire, leads to Crusades
theocracy
form of govt in which all civil power is in the hands of the religious leaders
canon law
name we give to the body of laws of the Church
success of Gregorian reform leads to?
increase of power/reputation of Church & papacy, so more people look to the Church
1st Crusade
only one to achieve real military success (short-lived); captures Jerusalem
2nd Crusade what?
fails
2nd Crusade led by?
Bernard of Clairvaux
3rd Crusade led by?
Frederick Barbarossa and King Richard the Lion Hearted of England
3rd Crusade what?
fails
4th Crusade what?
disaster & disgrace- turn against the friendly, Christian city of Constantinople
4th Crusade led by?
King Phillip & his wife
Crusades=
"Holy" Wars
Crusades- good or bad?
bad; an embarrassment
High Middle Ages (time)
1046-1305
High Middle Ages=
Age of Renewal
4th Crusade called by?
Pope Innocent III
1st Crusade called by?
Pope Urban II
Christendom
the cultural world that came into existence during the High Middle Ages
In Christendom period, _____one was Catholic and it influenced ____ aspect of their lives
every; every
fear of heresy leads to?
Inquisition
Inquisition is what?
an official Catholic court that was charged w/ examining and investigating those accused of heresy & punishing heretics w/ torture/death
Christendom is basically the ____ of Christianity (Catholisism)
culture
false doctrines are known as....
heresy
who teaches false doctrines?
heretics
what was the inside threat the Church fought?
heresy/opposition
how did the Church fight against inside threats
Inquisition
How did the Church fight against outside threats
Crusades
As a result of the Crusades, ___increased and people moved to cities/towns that the revival of ____ brought into being (same term 2x)
trade
shift in population as trade increased led to a new social class called?
urbam poor
forms to help urban poor
friars
comes from the Latin word for "brothers"
Friar
Latine word for "brothers"
fater/fratis
gave up all his wealth/disgraced his father
St. Francis
order St Francis involuntarily founded/led
Franciscans
St. Dominic Salvio leads/founds this
Order of Preachers (O.P.)/ Dominicans
spreads rosary
Order of Preachers
Spanish
St. Dominic
Italian
Francis
Clare
Dominic wants to fight against these things that mislead the faithful
heresy
how Dominic wanted to fight heresy
well-educated & holy preachers who explain Church teachings & live according to gospel
admires Francis
St. Dominic does
female counterpart of St. Francis?
St. Clare of Assisi
name of the order of nuns Clare put together
Poor Clares
Why were some orders called mendicant
they were "begging" because they emphasize eprsonal poverty & finance their charitable activities from donations they seek from the faithful
names of mendicant orders
Carmelites, Augustinians, Franciscans, Dominicans
who brings the Church closer to the people?
mendicant orders
what were some things mendicant orders introduce
rosary, stations of the cross, Christmas cre'che
Friars teach in universities & are known as ____ & _____
preachers and confessors
most lasting monuments of Christendom in the midieval period
churches adn cathedrals made in the Gothic Style
where Gothic Style began & when became popular to rest of world
France, 1150
Monks copy manuscripts to do what with them
pass them on to monastic schools, where future monks are trained
who copy manuscripts for cathedral schools (where futer diocesan clergy learns)
bishops
glory of Christendom that appears in 12th century
universities
centers of higher education
universities are
subjects taught @ universities
law, medicine, philosophy, theology
thinkers from universities that contribute to our understanding of Catholicism
Anselm, Peter Abelard, Albert the Great, Bonaventure, Duns Scotus
Dominican friar/ thinker/writer who is best known of all the thinkers & is not afraid of knowledge
Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)
"truth cannot contradict truth" so reason can't be in conflict w/ faith
Thomas Aquinas
where Henry IV was excommunicated
Canosa