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44 terms

ap psych ch. 4

ap psych revised ch. 4 words
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developmental psychology
A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
zygote
The fertilized egg - it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
embryo
The developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
fetus
The developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
teratogens
Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking - in severe cases, symptoms include noticable facial misproportions
rooting reflex
A baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to open the mouth and search for the nipple
habituation
Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation
maturation
Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively unifluenced by experience
schema
A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
assimilation
Interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas
accommodation
Adjusting our schemas to fit the particulars of new experiences
cognition
All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
sensorimotor stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
object permanence
The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
preoperational stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
conservation
The principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objetcs
egocentrism
In Piaget's theory, the inability of the preoperational child to take another's point of view
theory of mind
People's ideas about their own and other's mental states - feelings, perceptions, thoughts, and behaviors
autism
A disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind
concrete operational stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
formal operational stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
Stranger anxiety
The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age
Attachment
An emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
critical period
An optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
imprinting
The process by which certain animals from attachments during a critical period very early in life
basic trust
According to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy
self-concept
A sense of one's identity and personal worth
adolescence
The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending fro puberty to independence
puberty
The period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
primary sex characteristics
The body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible
menarche
The first menstrual period
identity
One's sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles
intimacy
In Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships
menopause
The time of natural cessation of menstruation
Alzheimer's disease
A progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and physical functioning
cross-sectional study
A study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
longitudinal study
Research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period
crystallized intelligence
One's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends ti increase with age
fluid intelligence
One's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends ot decrease during late adulthood
social clock
The culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood,and retirement
Preconventional Morality
Obeying either to avoid punishment, or to gain concrete rewards; usually occurs before the age of 9
Conventional Morality
Cares for others and upholds laws and social rules simply because thy are the laws and rules
Postconventional Morality
Affirms peoples agreed upon rights, or follows what one personally perceives as basic ethical principles