BIOL 122 1/27 Cells Cont. (End)

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Hollow tubes. Spiral strands of protein molecules that form a tubelike structure. Composed of ring tubulin protein fibers. Multiple functions: moving materials within the cell, allowing cellular movement, chromosome movement in cell division. Constantly being deformed and regraded. Largest, 25 nm in diameter. Format MTOC
Image: Microtubules
Structure of flagella and cilia9+2 arrangement; dyenin connects outer-parts to one another, nine doublets, 2 singles of microtubules, motor proteinsBasal bodyanchors the cilium or flagellum, structure is identical to a centrioleThe bending of the cilia and flagella is driving by the arms of what?The motor protein, dynein Dynein arms grab, move, and release microtubules Protein cross-links limit slidingCilia usually occur in large numbers on the cell surface. Same with flagella, but are _____shorter, (2-20 microns long)MicrovilliUsed to increase the surface area of the cell (as in the epithelial cells of the digestive tract)How many flagella are in each cell?One or a few, same width as cilia but are longerPlant cellPlant cellsClose to an animal cell, however has a cell wall, central vacuole, and plastids.Cell wallStructural strength, limit water absorption, and protection. Composition is cellulose and lignin.Central vacuoleStoring nutrients and water, involved in metabolism, retains and regrades waste, and some color.PlastidsGather and store nutrients, pigments, photosynthesis, such as chloroplasts.