AP Euro Age of Religious Wars/ Exploration/ Commericialism

Prince Henry
1400s, Portugal prince known as Henry the Navigator, organized and paid for voyages of discovery, Portugal explorers were trying to find sea route to Asia to bypass the Italians
"God, glory, and gold"
reasons for Europeans to explore and discover the world, used in the Age of Discovery/ God- Europeans felt that they had to convert non-Christians to Christianity, Glory for the national pride for discoveries helped with funding Renaissance individualism helped with sense of adventure and discovering new things, Gold drove wealth of European nations helped with the Commerce Revolution, new trade routes for countries direct access to market
Treaty of Toredesillas
1494, mediated by Pope Alexander VI, divided land in the New World between Spain and Portugal, problems with competing for claims to new markets
Spanish law in Spanish-America, grant to the labor of a specific amount of native Americans in return of labor given instruction in Spanish language and the Roman Catholic faith assimilate them into Spanish culture (end of 15th century)
charts made by navigators and mathematicians, were not to scale though and not good for sea voyages, early stages of the Age of Exploration
1600, mixed descendents of Native Americans and Europeans, somewhat middle-class, lower class than if full Spanish blood
in Peru, 1545, huge silver deposits discovered sent back to Spain, helped to finance Phillip II's expeditions, military, and counter-reformation
Bartolome de Las Casas
16th century, Spanish priest who traveled to New World with conquistadors, sent back reports of brutalities against the natives, recommended to Charles V native people not be used for slave labor, suggested Africans later saw them just as much as humans as the Native Americans
Dominicans, Franciscans, Jesuits
Three main religious orders responsible for the Catholic missions around the world, 16th century
Francis I & Henry II
both French kings who spent lavishly (caused debt problems) and helped to keep France Catholic through things like the Concordat of Bologna (French king appointed the clergy), mid 16th century, Henry II's wife as Catherine de Medici regent mother of Henry's 3 sons
Catherine de Medici
Was the wife of Henry II (Valois). She acted as regent during the reign of her three weak and ineffective sons - Francis II (1559-60) Charles IX (1560-74) Henry III (1574-89). Ordered the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre. Tried to keep the monarchy in control of her family
formal gardens next to the Louvre in Paris
French Protestants, used starting in 16th century, many nobility became Huguenots, opposed the Guise family
Henry, Duke of Guise
(1550-1588) He led the Catholic League. Subsidized by Philip II of Spain, he vowed to fight until Protestantism was completely driven from France. He wanted to be the heir to the throne instead of Henry of Navarre or Cardinal de Bourbon. He was assassinated by his own bodyguards shortly before Christmas 1588 planned by the Valois king.
Henry of Navarre
Political leader of the Huguenots and a member of the Bourbon dynasty, succeeded to the throne as Henry IV. He realized that as a Protestant he would never be accepted by Catholic France, so he converted to Catholicism. When he became king in 1594, the fighting in France finally came to an end. Edict of Nantes, "Paris is worth a mass"
public figures who placed politics before religion and believed that no religious truth was worth civil war, ex. Henry IV (of Navarre, Elizabeth I
Henry III
(1551-1589, r. 1574-1589) House of Valois. Henry's reign was suffused with blood, at first because of the continuous Wars of Religion that pitted Catholics against Huguenots, but later because of the struggles that arose when it became clear that he was going to be the last of the Valois line. The War of the Three Henries broke out after his brother died and the then-Protestant Henry of Navarre (later Henry IV) became heir, leading the Catholic Holy League to strike out of fear for its interests. Henry III was assassinated by a crazed friar in 1589.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
A nationwide massacre of French Huguenots that began at a royal wedding in Paris in 1572. It marked the complete breakdown of order in France, ordered by Catherine de Medici, Protestants now have fight for survival
War of the Three Henrys
French civil war because the Holy League vowed to bar Henri of Navarre from inheriting the French throne. Supported by the Holy League and Spain's Philip II, Henri of Guise battles Henri III of Valois and Henri of Navarre.
Edict of Nantes
1598, decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants
Phillip II
King of Spain, 1556 - 1598; married to Queen Mary I of England;he was the most powerful monarch in Europe until 1588; controlled Spain, the Netherlands, the Spanish colonies in the New World, Portugal, Brazil, parts of Africa, parts of India, and the East Indies. Basically wanted to be ruler of the world, wanted everyone to be Catholic
Battle of Lepanto
(1571) Spain defeated the Turkish navy off the coast of Greece-ended Ottoman threat in Mediterranean, Turkish sea power was destroyed in 1571 by a league of Christian nations organized by the Pope. Last major naval battle fought with ships rowed by oars.
El Escorial
built in 16th century, palace built by Philip II which served as royal court, art gallery, monastery, and tomb for Spanish royalty
"Golden Century"
Phillip II patronizes arts in Spain, 1550-1650; El Greco, Cervantes (Don Quixote), sea voyages and new riches, Spain top power in Europe/ world
Council of Troubles
During Dutch revolt, Council created by Duke of Alva, aka "Council of Blood". Suppressed religious and political dissidents. Sentenced thousands to death, levied new taxes, confiscated estates of nobles
William (the Silent) of Orange
Leader of Dutch revolt, first stadtholder of United Provinces of the Netherlands, at first was Catholic, then Lutheran, and finally Calvinist, led the Netherland to become an independent state from Spain 1609, full recognition with Peace of Westphalia in 1648
To be continued...