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ad hominem fallacy
fallacy of logic in which a person's character or motive is attacked instead of that person's argument
a sudden turn from the general audience to address a specific group or person, either absent or present, real or imagined.
appeal to authority
fallacy in which a citation of information is solicited from someone with special knowledge on a subject for the purpose of strengthening an argument. It weakens the argument if it is the sole point of the argument.
begging the question
fallacy of logical argument that assumes as true the very thing one is trying to prove.
a form of reasoning that begins with a generalization, and then applies the generalization to a specific case or cases.
the use of a word or phrase that is less direct, but that is also less distasteful or less offensive than another.
a fallacy of logical argument which is committed when too few of the available alternatives are considered, and all but one is assessed and deemed impossible or unacceptable.
- a form of reasoning which works from a body of facts to a general conclusion frequently used as the principal form of reasoning for history and science.
- a contrast between what appears to be and what really is. Verbal irony, situation irony, and dramatic irony are also related.
a fallacy that occurs when one statement does not logically follow from what has preceded.
a form of reasoning in which two statements, a major premise and a minor premise, have a logical conclusion which follows from them. It is associated with deductive reasoning.
a part or quality of something which is used in substitution of the larger whole, or vice versa.
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